This is a waterfowl belonging to the duck family and a detachment of gooselike. Distinguish 4 subspecies of the nutrums: gray and forest, tundra and shortblown. All of them live in fairly harsh climatic conditions and feed on plants.
These migratory birds begin to return home earlier than others. Due to their bright color and large sizes, they are often interested in hunters. But this is not all that geese can surprise people. They are also careful and smart.
Description and features
Featers of birds of gray-brown color, and yellow legs with overflow into orange. The beak also stands out due to black and yellow strip on it. A goose weighs about 2.5 kilograms, but large individuals weighing 5 kg are also found. The female and male gender differs in size: females are a little less than males.
The voice of the geese is quite sonorous and sharp, as the flock will be heard for a few kilometers, but resembles a gogot of other species similar to this. Not only relatives can respond to noise and hunters use this.
Types and habitats
There are several types of meters that live mainly in places with a cold climate:
Forest Goose, which lives preferably in forests in the west of Siberia. Usually this subspecies does not form a colony, but creates family groups. A feature of forest geese is an elongated beak and a nasal gogot.
Tundra goose. The subspecies lives on the Arctic islands, biotopes of tundra and foresttundra. The beak of the individuals is swollen and not too long. The weight of the bird is about 3 kilograms, and the wingspan of no more than one and a half meters. Another difference from others is a narrow yellow band.
A short-circuent goose living in the east of Greenland and in the north-west of Eurasia has a short beak with a pink strip and weighs about 3 kg. The wings of the individuals are not very long and, when they are folded, do not overlap the tail feathers. Now this subspecies suffers the most, because the number of birds is falling.
Glity Gumennik lives in the taiga and is extremely careful. Such geese weigh quite a lot more than 4 kilograms. The paws and banding are orange, and dark feathers cover the head and lower part.
The diet of the Gomennik
Usually nutrumers feed on plants and are much less common with individuals with a diet from animal foods. So, the roots and shoots of plants, cranberries and seeds of cones are your favorite bird food. The shoots of reeds and blueberries are no less popular among individuals. But, despite the fact that individuals love plants, young birds need to use mollusks and caviar.
During the flight, they usually eat wheat and corn, but they can use vegetables in areas, although they prefer grain crops. This is associated with the name of the species, since “Gumno” ̶ is a place where grain is processed and stored.
The female and the male together build a nest in a dry place next to the water. To make the dwelling warm and comfortable, the birds try to design it with moss or grass. There is fluff or feathers along the edges of the nest. About 3 weeks are spent on equipping a “house”, but in some cases geese find natural recesses and then the process goes faster, ̶ otherwise they compact the earth, creating a recess.
The masonry consists of eggs weighing 12 grams, which are usually 3-9 pieces. A little later they become yellow for better merging with the surface. 25 days pass, and chicks begin to appear. This happens until the end of July. Guses are born with fluff of gray or olive on the back, and on the body feathers are painted in yellow.
It is important that the male does not help the eggs to sit down, but protects the female even in the event of an attack by a fox or fox. Although at first glance, it seems that geese cannot outwit such animals, but for the greater preservation of the offspring, parents lead the goslings to the meadow and continue to monitor them where there is food and more safely. Fortunately, the chicks grow up a month and a half and then they can protect themselves.
These waterfowl can spend time on land for a long time and reunite with the aquatic environment only in the evening. In addition, even in the event of the danger of geese, they will soon begin to run away, jumping in the meadows than they will float through the water, although swimming is an important part of their life.
No less interesting that birds are monogamous and never betray a partner. Already at the age of three, they become sexually mature and create a pair, which nothing can be separated.
Gumenniki experience molting once a year when chicks grow up. During this period, birds prefer to go to hardtoreach places, such as meadow. But it is known that they can create large groups at this time, so as not to be so vulnerable to predators due to the fact that they cannot fly.
Life expectancy and population
Today, the population of these birds is reduced, and the whole species is at risk of extinction, and therefore they carry out a set of measures that will increase the number. But this does not happen because of a small life expectancy, because birds are able to live for 15 years, and in captivity there are even more. The population is affected by ecology, human activity. So, people have long known about the properties of fluff and feathers of animals for the production of textiles, about the pleasant taste of their meat and eggs, although this is not a reason to kill the nutrums listed in the Red Book.
The voice of the throat