The main advantage of hibiscus, which is appreciated by gardeners and landscape designers, is a plentiful and beautiful flowering. The flowering of each bud lasts only a couple of days, but in general, flowering can be long — Its duration depends on the type and growing conditions.
- Features of flowering:
- Types and varieties of hibiscus
- Hybrid hibiscus
- Swamp hibiscus
- Syrian hibiscus
- Specified hibiscus
- Chinese rose
- Planting garden hibiscus
- Discharging deadlines
- Selection of the site
- The choice of seedlings
- Discharging of seedlings
- How to plant hibiscus:
- Planting indoor hibiscus
- Soil preparation
- Preparation of the seedling
- Possible alarming signs:
- When you need a transplant and transshipment
- Planting in a pot
- In the garden
- Methods of reproduction
- Dividing the bush
- Diseases and pests
- Interesting facts about hibiscus
Features of flowering:
- The flowers of hibiscus can be both fragrant or completely deprived of any aroma. Moreover, the last option is more common.
- Budons are usually revealed in the morning when the sun rises. In the evening, the buds close and fade, the flowering ends. New flowers will bloom the next morning.
- With proper care on each branch, from 20 to 50 buds can bloom at the same time.
- Flowering begins in spring or early summer, and can last until autumn. Indoor hibiscus can bloom from February to October.
The dormant period begins in November and lasts until February. At this time, the temperature in the room is reduced to +14…+16°FROM. The flower even at rest should receive enough light and water.
Since hibiscus comes from tropics, he is able to bloom yearround. True, this is possible only when creating the appropriate conditions for him throughout the year.
Types and varieties of hibiscus
Biologists have about three hundred types of hibiscus. The most popular are indoor and garden varieties planted for the sake of decorative effect.
This longterm hybrid with large flowers has been obtained by crossing hibiscus resistant frosts — swampy and armed, with varieties having bright red flowers. Suitable for indoor and garden growing.
Features of hybrid hibiscus:
- The leaves are similar to maple, and flowers like a Chinese rose, but much larger.
- In Eurasia, it can be grown in gardens, provided that the winter is shelter. The stems die on the eve of winter, and the roots remain alive
- The plant blooms from August to frost.
- The variety was bred in the USSR by the Soviet breeder f. Rusanov 70 years ago.
This is one of the most popular types of hibiscus. It grows perfectly in the garden and at home. He has powerful roots and large flowers (15 cm in diameter). In nature, the plant grows up to 3 m and has a welldeveloped crown — Therefore, it has an excellent root system.
Features of swamp hibiscus:
- Heartshaped leaves, glossy.
- Coloring flowers — bright red, purple and purple shades. They bloom one day — from morning to evening.
The variety is attractive not only by decorativeness, it tolerates cold and is suitable for creating hedges, borders. In the rooms, the flower creates a cozy atmosphere, and its dry flowers are considered therapeutic.
It is also called a Syrian rose and actively planted in gardens and front gardens. Is a longterm bush with large flowers. Belongs to the group of treelike varieties.
Features of Syrian hibiscus:
- Reaches a height of 2.5 m, in width — 2 m.
- The location of the leaves is alternately. In shape they look like chrysanthemum leaves.
- The flowers are single, up to 10-11 cm in diameter. Flowering lasts from June to midSeptember.
- If you feed and cut the plant in time, it can grow in a tub under 20 years.
- Syrian hibiscus is suitable for moderate climate zones. Tolerates frosts to minus 20°C.
The shrub-mighter in the natural environment grows up to 10 m in height. The birthplace of Arnotti — Hawaii. He has fragrant flowers with the middle of different colors. This type of hibiscus has healing properties.
Features of Arnotti:
- The diameter of the flowers — 10 cm. Color — white. On the petals — pale back or purple veins.
- Reproduction — Cherling.
- In conditions of moderate climate, the plant is grown only as an annual.
- A decoction is prepared from the leaves — It cleanses blood and has a laxative effect.
This evergreen shrub reaches a height of 2.5 m. He is from Australia. The flower has a straight trunk with an uneven bark and thorny branches.
Features of hibiscus spread out:
- On low branches, the leaves are larger.
- Yellow flowers with a raspberry base.
- The name of the plant received a special shape of the crown. The branches first diverge at right angles, and then grow up.
- Propagated mainly by cuttings.
The birthplace of this evergreen plant — Southeast Asia. He is appreciated for rapid growth, decorativeness, simple care and unpretentiousness. The rose has a lush crown, is actively grown in rooms.
Features of indoor hibiscus (Chinese rose):
- During indoor cultivation, the plant reaches a height of 1.2 m.
- The flowers are large, up to 12 cm in diameter, various colors.
- Flowering is plentiful, from March to the end of autumn.
In the summer, it is recommended to rearrange the Chinese rose to the garden plot. The tub is placed so that direct sunlight does not fall on the plant, and it was protected from the winds.
Planting hibiscus in different ways — to the ground or in the tubs. Moreover, on the street these plants can also be kept in containers. For planting, you can use seedlings or seeds.
Planting garden hibiscus
In the garden, hibiscus can be grown both in the ground and in large flowerpots. For planting, use seedlings — purchased or grown personally.
Hibiscus is planted twice a year in open ground/vhazons:
- Spring. The landing is recommended in May when the soil warms up to +15°C, and the threat of return frosts will be excluded.
- In the fall. Planting at this time of the year is undesirable, especially in temperate latitudes. Seedlings rarely manage to take root and get stronger until frost. If all the same, the landing is carried out in the fall, then the trunk circles are thoroughly mulched, and the seedling itself is wrapped in dense material or covered with spruce.
Selection of the site
So that the plant grows rapidly and develops, for it you need to choose the right place. The requirements of hibiscus to light, moisture, soils, and the movement of air masses are taken into account.
How to choose a suitable place for planting hibiscus to the garden:
- Lack of bright sun;
- Protection against drafts and strong winds;
- The site should be well drained;
- Soil — loose and nutritious, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
If the plant is grown by seeds, then sowing begins in the middle of winter. Ready seedlings are planted in open ground after the establishment of steady heat.
The choice of seedlings
The easiest and fastest way to decorate the cottage with hibiscus — Buy seedlings and plant them on beautiful tubs or in open ground.
How to choose seedlings of hibiscus:
- The flower should have a healthy look;
- It must be visible — what color the flowers will be;
- Roots — Healthy, without damage.
To check the roots of the plants, just tap the container a little and pull the stem up. After that, you can inspect the root system.
Discharging of seedlings
The seedlings do not need any additional procedures, you can safely transplant them to the site or to a flowerpot suitable for size.
How to plant hibiscus:
- Prepare the soil. Dig the site in advance, bringing peat and sand under the digging. You can also introduce organics — humus and compost. For the tub, prepare the mixture. For example, such a composition:
- The land is garden — 2 parts;
- peat — 4 parts;
- sand — 1 part.
- Dig a hole for planting. Its volume should be such that the seedling is comfortable in it (about twice as much as the size of the roots). Intervals between neighboring pits — 1.5-2 m.
- Prepare the pit for landing. Put the drainage with a layer of 10-15 cm to the bottom. It can be pebbles or small crushed stone. Pour sand on drainage, then compost.
- Plant the seedling. Carefully remove the seedlings from the planting pot. Put plants in the center of the pit, strictly vertically, and thoroughly sprinkle its roots with soil mixture prepared in advance. Make it out of a mixture of sand, peat and upper layer of the earth removed during the digging of the pit.
- Complete the landing. Form a trunk circle — a notch in which water will accumulate during watering.
- Watering. Pour into a furrow drawn around the seedling, 10 liters of water.
- Cutting. Immediately after planting, all shoots are shortened half the length.
The root neck of the seedling of hibiscus should be slightly below ground level.
If you have to plant hibiscus in the garden, bought planting material is usually used for this purpose. Plants can serve as an excellent decoration of a summer cottage. If winters are harsh, plants are transplanted into tubs and transferred to the basement. Or warm the plant thoroughly.
Planting indoor hibiscus
If the hibiscus has to grow at home, decorating the interior with its appearance, you must prepare landing containers for it in advance. A seedling seedling can be grown from seeds, but it’s easier to buy readymade seedlings.
Its development and growth depend on the quality of the soil mixture on which young hibiscus will grow. The earth in the pot should be fertile, loose, with a neutral reaction.
The optimal composition of soil mixtures for home growing hibiscus:
- Leaf land — 2 parts;
- Dill Earth — 2 parts;
- humus — 2 parts;
- sand — 1 part;
- Wood ash — 0.5 parts.
Another option for soil mixtures:
- peat — 2 parts;
- humus — 1 part;
- Garden Earth — 1 part;
- washed sand — 0.5 parts.
Peat has increased acidity, therefore, a quarter glass of wood ash and 1 st. l. complex mineral fertilizer.
Preparation of the seedling
Bought landing material, bringing home, carefully examine.
How to check the health of a seedlings of hibiscus:
- There should be no traces of damage, diseases or pests on the stems and leaves.
- Remove the plant from the planting container as neatly as possible and inspect the roots. They should not have traces of root workers or rot. Typically, hibiscus are sold in plastic pots, from which seedlings easily get.
If damage is detected on young hibiscus, it is necessary to immediately treat them with appropriate drugs from diseases (fungicides) and pests (insecticides).
Possible alarming signs:
- Spots and points;
- Uneven yellowness on the leaves;
When you need a transplant and transshipment
Many argue about the transplantation of hibiscus — When you need to move the seedling to a new place. The fact is that hibiscus usually bring from Holland. They grow in pots with excellent soil mixture, thanks to which they have a wonderful look.
With a sharp transplant to a new soil mixture, less perfect, the plant can respond poorly, up to death. Therefore, the transplant should be carefully prepared by making the most nutritious mixture.
If it is still decided to transplant the seedling into a new pot/vazon immediately after the purchase, then only the transshipment method is used. This method is preferred when transplanting any colors.
The transplant is carried out with:
- Plant diseases;
- The appearance of insects in the soil;
- Rotten roots;
- The wrong composition of the soil mixture.
Plant transplantation is carried out with a complete replacement of the soil, and the transshipment — Together with the lump of earth. In the first case, the risk of damage to the roots is great, in the second it is minimized.
Planting in a pot
For transplanting a seedling to a new container, you need to choose a volume pot — Its diameter should exceed the previous one by 4-5 cm.
Procedure for planting (transshipment) of a seedlings of hibiscus:
- Pour a layer of expanded clay on the bottom of the pot, and then pour a little soil. Add a little charcoal to it.
- Fill the seedling so that the flower is extracted from the planting capacity without damage.
- Remove the seedling from the pot, tapping on its walls.
- Put the seedling with a lump of soil in a new pot so that it sags a little. This will allow you to fill in fresh land after planting.
- Pour the earth with the roots with the earth, gently triggering it with your fingers.
- Put the support. For example, a wooden stick. Tie a plant to it. This will not only support hibiscus, but also prevent the slope and fall of the pot.
- Generously pour the planted seedling and cover the pot with film. This will allow the plant faster and better to take root after moving to a new capacity.
- Shit the branches with a sharp garden knife to form a compact plant.
When the plant takes root, after a couple of days, the film is removed and grown, ensuring — Watering, top dressing and t.D. Basons are placed in a sunny place and ensure the flow of fresh air to the flower.
The pot to the pot is made according to the same scheme, but the pot is filled with soil mixture by at least 2/3. Then the flower is planted and its roots are filled with soil.
Features of the care of hibiscus depend on the place of cultivation — There are nuances in the room and on the street. In both cases, nothing complicated is the care of this plant and is limited to standard measures — Watering, top dressing, transplanting, trimming.
In the garden
So that the hibiscus grows safely and luxuriously bloom, it is important to choose the right variety — corresponding to the climate. If this rule is made, then there will be no problems with the growth of hibiscus in the garden. Caring for it is available even to beginner gardeners.
How to care for hibiscus in the garden:
- Watering. They are carried out only when the soil is drying out, since excessive moisture is poorly affected by plants. One deep watering is enough once a week, if the summer is dry — Plants are watered 2-3 times.
- Loosening. The soil around the bushes is regularly loosened to saturate it with oxygen and prevent the growth of weeds.
- Top dressing. So that the hibiscus bloom well, he needs phosphorus — This element stimulates budding. Use an improvised organic — humus, compost, or complex compositions. Frequency fertilizer — 2 times a month. They last from June to September. In August, top dressing containing potassium.
- Mulching. Every spring, the trunk circles are generously mulched by compost mixed with the ground. Mulch not only serves as an additional fertilizer, but also prevents the formation of crust on the soil, delays the evaporation of moisture, interferes with the growth of weeds.
- The formation of the crown. It is carried out every two years. Pruning allows not only to form the crown at your discretion, but also to rejuvenate the plant, to prevent thickening.
- Sanitary pruning. When young green shoots appear on plants, dried branches are removed, which have outlived their term.
- Removing buds. The dried buds regularly break off so that the decorativeness of the plants does not decrease.
Preparation for wintering. Ground parts of plants die in the fall. They are trimmed flush with the surface of the earth, watered abundantly and hilled. A thick layer of wood sawdust or fallen leaves is poured around the bush.
Varieties of hibiscus, not dying with the onset of cold weather, cover like young trees. Around plants are built frames on which spanbond or lutrasil are pulled. Or build huts from the spruce.
Incorrect care for hibiscus at home leads to discharge of buds and flowers. With aggravation of problems, the plant drops the leaves. Hibiscus, although unpretentious, require a certain care. All events are standard and simple.
How to care for indoor hibiscus:
- Watering. Moderate or plentiful. The plant loves water and poorly tolerate even slight drying out of the earth. Moisture deficiency causes leaf wilting and dumping buds. The plant is especially generously watered during growth, in the winter season watering is reduced. Stagnation of water in pallets is unacceptable.
- Temperature. It is supported at +25°C. In summer, the room is ventilated or put into air, on the balcony or in the garden. In winter, hibiscus is enough +12°C.
- Air humidity. Recommended humidity — 60%. The higher the temperature, the more moisture indicators should be. Bushes can be sprayed with water, but not during the period of budding and flowering. Installation of humidifiers is recommended — From special devices to pallets with wet pebbles.
Top dressing. Feel the plant every 10 days. Mineral complexes contribute. Start the bushes with the beginning of rapid growth. Hibiscus needs iron and magnesium — it is necessary to make fertilizers that contain these elements.
For hibiscus, purchased fertilizers for beautifully flowering crops are suitable. It is important not to overdo it with nitrogen — Its excess negatively affects flowering, but it cannot be introduced either — Lack of nitrogen leads to yellowing of leaves.
- Transfer. Plants are moved to new, more voluminous pots every 2-3 years. Transplant is usually carried out in February. In cramped, the flower does not bloom well, but in excessively large tubs it feels uncomfortable, so the size of the pots is increased gradually, every time 2-4 cm.
- Cutting. Plants are regularly cut to stimulate flowering and form the crown. The main pruning is carried out in the spring, as soon as the rapid growth begins. All shoots shorten up to 2-3 kidneys. Instead of trimming, you can limit yourself to pinching, then the plant will grow.
Sanitary pruning is permissible at any time of the year — Remove dried and weakened shoots, «The tops». To give the bush one or another form, a haircut is carried out along the conceived contour.
In winter, the amount of top dressing, like watering, is reduced by 3-4 times, and only potassium-phosphorus compounds are introduced.
Methods of reproduction
Hibiscus propagation methods depend on its variety. So, for example, garden hibiscus is propagated by layers, vaccinations, cuttings, seeds. Hybrid — division of the bush, vaccinations and green cuttings. Further, the most popular methods of breeding hibiscus.
Hibiscus is hardy, unpretentious and easy to manage, which even a novice flower breeder can cope with. A particularly simple and convenient method of propagation is cuttings. Apply it in the summer.
The propagation order of cuttings:
- Cut the cuttings from the young shoots of hibiscus. There should be 3-4 kidneys on each pruning.
- Process slices with a rhizome or other root stimulator.
- Place the cuttings in a mixture of peat and sand mixed in equal parts. Maintain a room temperature at +23°C.
- The rooting lasts about a month. Then the cuttings are transplanted into pots with a fertile soil mixture containing sand and humus, and watered abundantly.
They begin to prepare for the seeding with seeds in the winter. Planting is carried out from January to March, depending on the time of planting seedlings in flowerpots or soil.
How to propagate hibiscus with seeds:
- Soak the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate.
- In the boxes filled with a mixture of sand and peat, drive seeds. Cover crops with a transparent film or glass.
- Ventilate the landings daily, removing the film/glass, and water.
- As soon as the first leaves appear, plant seedlings in individual tanks.
Around May, the seedlings of hibiscus will be ready for transplanting to the soil or flowerpots.
Dividing the bush
The bushes are launched before the start of sapotage, early in the spring. From one bush you can get several fullfledged plants.
How to divide a bush of hibiscus:
- Dig the bush from the ground completely.
- Divide the bush into section with a sharp garden knife. If the bush is old, in Deleka you can leave a pair of shoots.
- Treat the entire cut with corner or wood ash.
- Immediately plant the shares in preprepared holes, according to standard technology (planting of hibiscus seedlings in open ground).
Diseases and pests
Indoor and garden hibiscus are affected by the same diseases and pests. The task of the flower grower, to find the problem in time and take appropriate measures.
Table. Pests and diseases of hibiscus, and measures to combat them:
|Signs of the disease/lesion||The reasons||How to fight?|
|The leaves turn yellow and are covered with spots||Chlorosis (it is transferred by ticks and aphids)||Add a complex fertilizer and spray with a phytovovem (every 3-4 days) and iron lentor|
|A white plaque appeared on the leaves||Powdery mildew (fungal disease)||Sick leaves are cut off, and the bush itself is sprinkled with sulfur powder, also shown processing with foundationazole or analogues|
|Leaves and shoots wither, colonies of small insects appeared on them||Aphids or other pests||Process with phytovovem, inta, decis|
|Yellow dots and a white spider web (from the inside) appeared on the leaves||Spider mite||Spray plants with a phytovers or derris, regularly sprayed with water|
|On the stems and on the bottom of the leaves — brown tubercles||Shields and false shields||Manually collect pests, and then spray the bush with an insecticide, for example, an actellik|
It is recommended to plant lavender near the hibiscus bushes — She scares off the pests well.
Interesting facts about hibiscus
For a long history of growing hibiscus by a person, many interesting facts have accumulated. Many events, legends, will accept this beautiful plant.
Interesting about hibiscus:
- Many superstitions are associated with hibiscus. And in different countries they can be completely opposite. Signs associated with indoor hibiscus among the Slavs:
- Growing a Chinese rose threatens her husband’s departure from the family. Because of this, the plant is called among the people «Muzhegon».
- Flowering provokes quarrels and scandals.
- If the bush has bloomed at the wrong time — in winter, then someone in the family will die.
- Dry leaves and black buds — bad sign.
- In Arab countries, ground seeds of Chinese roses are used as a spice. It is added to coffee and meat dishes.
- Chopped petals — proven remedy for the treatment of burns, wounds, ulcers and cuts.
- Indoor hibiscus is considered an aphrodisiac, so it is recommended to put it in a married bedroom.
Hibiscus is one of the most universal decorative plants. It is diverse, beautiful and suitable for a variety of growing conditions. Each flower lover can find hibiscus to their liking — Big Bush for the Garden or Sprawl Indoor Plant.