Hornet photo, bite and what the nest looks like | Characterization of the hornet

Hornet (lat. Vespa) this is an insect with rather large sizes that belongs to the family of real OS, the genus of the Hornie. They are similar in appearance to bees and Osami, but have many differences that will be described below.


Basically, these insects reach three or four centimeters in length in their size, but in this kind there are certain subspecies, the length of the body of which exceeds five or even six centimeters. The main difference from other members of the family is the head that has larger sizes, the expanding crown and faceting eyes. In addition to them, by the way, the hornets have three simple eyes, thanks to which they are able to see much more and better than the rest of the wasps. The head and body are always similar in terms, only shades differ only. These insects can be yellow, black, reddish, orange and their body can be spots. The antennas are growing on their heads, which are more like small antennas. The jaws of representatives of the genus are painted in brown, black or yellow color.

The hornet’s abdomen has a rounded shape, a slender waist in the place where the joint occurs with the chest. In terms of colors, they are not particularly different from ordinary OS, but the alternation of the stripes is expressed less clearly, since some shades merge with each other. Some of the species have a monophonic abdomen, thanks to which you can distinguish them from the rest of the family brothers without any problems. Thus, for example, the alternating hornet is completely brown, there are no stripes and other overflows, only in some places of the body the shades become lighter or dark. In addition, instead of black, the strip can be white, because it also depends on the climate, type and other features of the structure. The body of the hornet is covered with hairs, the size of which can be different.

The working females at the end of the abdomen have an egg, from which the sting grows. Когда насекомое не чует опасности и ведёт привычный ему образ жизни, жало спрятано и его не видно, поскольку оно втягивается вовнутрь. The hornets at the base of their sting have a reservoir with poison, which is always filled, but it does not pose a particular danger to a person, regardless of the errors of many people. The sting itself is smooth and direct, there is no Zazubin on it, like the bees, so the hornets do not die after defense or attack, and can also continue their attacks many times.

The hornets have three pairs of legs, each of which can be either black and yellow, because it depends on the view. The structure of the paw looks as follows: the basin from which the vertluug comes and develops into the thigh, then the lower leg and foot begins at the end. The insect has two pairs of webded wings: the front are located in the center, which has a large size, and follow the rear, much smaller in size. At rest, the front wings fold along the back.


There are a huge number of types of hornets, which is why it is problematic to highlight some specific. But you can still describe the most remarkable and popular representatives of the family:

Common hornet, it is also called a hornet. The most typical representative of the family, about which you can only say that it is a little more than other species. It does not have any significant differences in the external plane, and the structure of all insects of the same family is approximately identical.

Grozen is ordinary

Decay hornet. Unlike most subspecies, has black or brown color with white spots on the belly, which is why it resembles a fly of giant sizes. The poison of representatives of this species is also much more toxic than that of others, so his bite can lead a person to death.

Decay hornet

Lifestyle and behavior

For their own life, these insects begin the construction of multitiered nests, which are similar in structure to rough paper, cardboard. After the construction is completed, they raise it to the hollow, birdhouses and other places where they can build a cozy shelter. They live under the roofs of houses, in caves, in attics and even tree branches. The color of the place of residence for them does not play a special role, but at the same time, representatives of this kind, despite the seemingly extremely small brain, try to avoid motley colors. The nests in size can reach almost a meter in height and half a meter in width, since Roy Hornet has a huge number of individuals. People began to call the houses of these insects paper, since their structure and manufacturing material are just this very paper. The construction for construction is fibers of minor wood or the bark of young twigs, which the hornets are thoroughly chewed and glued with their sticky saliva. Then insects apply this mass to the nest with a thin layer. After drying, it freezes and turns into a loose semblance of paper. This material is very similar to rough wrapping paper, on which you can even write with a pencil.

Where it lives

Hills of the Horned Hornie in the world there is a huge number, so it is a rather difficult task to highlight some specific regions. But scientists noticed that the largest part lives in the northern hemisphere, but only they are not limited to them. Russia, Europe, America, Asia, Africa-some kind of hornet can be found in each of these regions. They were also seen in the east and north of China, in Sri Lanka, in Algeria, Uzbekistan, Greece and in most other countries of the world. The only place where it will be impossible to meet them is the Arctic, the extreme north and the rest of the coldest regions of our planet.

What eats

As food, most adults eat vegetation, preferably with a plentiful amount of sugar in the composition. Because of this, a swarm can attack fruit gardens, because fructose has almost identical sucrose food characteristics and structure, which is why insects like to enjoy plums, apples and pears. They also like to drink nectar, steal honey in workers’ bees, when the opportunity is given, they can drink aphid secretions, since they contain sugar. They do not really love the juice of birches, oaks and other trees, but they have nothing against it, because the food will clearly not be superfluous. Despite all this, the hornets are primarily dangerous in the insect world of predators, which in their lives are able to destroy hundreds of colonies of bees and OS, although, it would seem, they are their brothers and are largely similar. As victims, they can choose grasshoppers, flies, dragonflies, butterflies and ants.

Hornecns kill their victims without any problems, since their jaws are very powerful and have a strong compressive force, which does not allow the mining to get out. The sting injects the poison, the saliva emits decaying enzymes, and the jaws crush the body. This is one of the most effective and workers tactics for hunting in the world, because most bugs simply do not have effective ways.


Since representatives of this kind are public insects, there are many strict rules in their reproduction and, in principle, lifestyle, which the whole swarm is obliged to follow. There are three main castes in the hierarchy: the uterus, which lies responsibility for the birth of new generations, workers-uterus, which help males get food, build a hive and protect it from ill-wishers. Such a division into groups allows you to effectively organize the activities of individuals without loss among offspring.

Reproduction time falls on warm days, so it does not depend on the season, in general. The uterus begins to fly around the territory to find a place for the construction of a new hive. After that, she calls workers and males who begin to collect materials and engage in construction itself. The new hive should first of all consist of many cells, each of which will be occupied by eggs in the future. Tiny larvae hatch a week after masonry. When new individuals grow up, the uterus makes them work and build new cells, after which it stops leaving the nest completely.

Natural enemies

The hornets have practically no natural enemies, which is facilitated by the peaceloving of the insect in relation to stronger creatures. Of the main natural enemies, only parasites can be distinguished that infect the insect and slowly suck out life from it, as well as larger insects, but there are actually very few of them.

Interesting Facts

  • One type of hornet from the island of Hainan quite often takes orchids for bees and begins to attack them. This is due to an unusual aroma, which is similar to the smell of a bee, and predators react aggressively to it.
  • In order to protect the hornets, they can start attacking with a whole swarm, creating a fullfledged barrier of a large number of individuals that are not very friendly.
  • Когда шершень начинает чувствовать угрозу, у него выделяются особые феромоны, которые предупреждают других об опасности.
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