How to distinguish toxic mushrooms from edible photos, names and doubles

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The forests of our country are rich in mushrooms, and there is hardly a person indifferent to mushrooms. Mushrooms from the point of view of cooking are a universal and very highcalorie product: various snacks are prepared from them, used in the preparation of hot dishes, and very tasty soups are cooked from them. But, unfortunately, not all mushrooms can be eaten, some of them can cause serious digestive disorders and even poisoning. Therefore, the process of collecting mushrooms should be approached as responsibly as possible.

When should you pick mushrooms

Mushrooms begin to appear in the spring, in midApril, and their collection lasts until the end of November. There are special calendars of mushroom pickers, which contains information about what months in which mushrooms should be collected. The bulk of edible mushrooms is collected in August September, but depending on weather conditions, these terms can shift both to the right and to the left.

Where you do not need to pick mushrooms

Mushrooms absorb substances from the soil like a sponge. Together with useful nutrients, various harmful toxins and chemicals can get into mushrooms. Therefore, it is better to refrain from collecting mushrooms near railways and roads with large traffic. You should not pick mushrooms and near industrial facilities, agricultural land and garbage dumps.

How to distinguish

There is no universal rule that allows you to distinguish an edible mushroom from an inedible, but several basic differences can be distinguished:

  • The spongy structure of the mushroom hat is a reliable sign of edible mushrooms. This structure of the hat is not peculiar to poisonous mushrooms, but there is an exception the Satanic mushroom, which is very similar to the booth;
  • Edible mushrooms have a more dull color in comparison with poisonous mushrooms;
  • Edible mushrooms have a more torn and irregular shape compared to poisonous mushrooms;
  • Inedible mushrooms smell bad and very hard.
  • Common misconceptions

  • Inedible mushrooms are not worm. There is no, for example, chanterelles are toxic for worms and insects, so they do not eat them, and many toxic mushrooms they eat with pleasure.
  • If the poisonous mushroom is placed in milk, then it will sour. This is exactly what it will be, but a similar situation will happen if you put an edible mushroom in milk. It’s all about the enzyme that causes the reduction of milk protein, and there is such an enzyme for many edible mushrooms.
  • If the poisonous mushroom is for a long time, then it becomes harmless. This is not true! Not all toxins contained in poisonous fungi are destroyed during heat treatment. Therefore, do not expose yourself to mortal danger.
  • A decoction of poisonous mushrooms causes silver blackening. Silver actually blackes up in a decoction of poisonous mushrooms. Amino acids containing sulfur, which can be found in inedible mushrooms and in edible, are to blame for this.
  • Poisonous mushrooms have a bitter taste. Task to taste poisonous mushrooms is not only a deadly activity, but also useless. Edible mushrooms can also be bitter, for example, some varieties.
  • Absolutely all varieties of rawers are edible and they can be eaten raw. In fact, this is not the case in the name of the mushroom is not that it can be eaten raw, but that the mushroom itself feeds on damp. Rawsers appear in the forest one of the first after heavy rains, hence the name. You can eat not all varieties of rahs. Biliary cheese can be poisoned.
  • All fly agaric are poisonous. Of course, most fly agarics are not edible, but some deadly poisonous, but there are exceptions, for example, a gray-pink fly agaric, which can be eaten if it is first boiled and then fry it. But all this needs to be done with special attentiveness and caution, but it is better not to conduct such experiments at all.
  • Poisonous mushrooms

    Dangerous doubles

    Analogs of edible mushrooms are very similar to the originals and it is quite difficult to distinguish them. There are a number of common signs that you have not an edible mushroom, but its dangerous double:

  • The color of the pulp changes on the cut, mainly on pink or red;
  • There is a film ring on the mushroom leg;
  • At the bottom of the legs there is a tubershaped thickening;
  • Unpleasant odor, sometimes too sharp;
  • A bitter taste.
  • Now we will consider more details of the most widespread dangerous doubles.

    White mushroom or boorus, its dangerous doubles are the gall mushroom, the satanic mushroom and the oaksized oak. The gall mushroom differs from the original with a bitter taste and in that its cut changes color to red. You can distinguish the Satanic mushroom from the boat by the color of the legs, in a dangerous double it is bright red color. Dubovik speckled differs from the boat with the presence of a reddish scales on the leg, its cut changes the color to blue, and the edges of the hat are darkened after pressing.

    Gall mushroom a dangerous double of white mushroom

    Honey mushrooms and false mushrooms. There are several varieties of false mushrooms. Distinctive features of gray-yellow honey mushrooms are:

  • Hats of a bell-shaped yellowish, yellow-brown or sulfur-yellow color with lighter shades along the edge;
  • The pulp has a sharp unpleasant odor, the color of the pulp is yellow or slightly whitish;
  • Flat fibrous leg light yellow;
  • Frequent and thin plates of green and dark green color.
  • Brick-red false honey mushrooms can be distinguished from the original by the following signs:

  • Bright red or orange color of the hat;
  • Earthly smell;
  • The presence of dark scales on the surface;
  • Lack of skirt.
  • False honey mushrooms

    Champignons. The doubles of champignons are pale gangs and fly agaric fluent.  You can distinguish pale pursues from the original according to the following signs:

  • The pulp in the section changes color to yellow or red;
  • The presence of a skirt on the leg;
  • Lack of smell in general or the presence of the smell of raw potatoes.
  • The fly agaric is smelly. One of the most poisonous mushrooms. They can only be poisoned by touching him with a hand, and then touching his mouth with the same hand. The distinctive features of fly agaric are smelly:

  • Plates are always bright white;
  • The leg at the base expands and takes the shape of the tuber;
  • Bright white color, which with age can acquire a beige or grayish tint.
  • Muhomor smelly a poisonous double of an ordinary champignon

    Chanterelles. As dangerous doubles, talkers are orange or false chanterelles. You can distinguish a false chanterelle from the original by the following signs:

  • Red hat in the middle with pale edges;
  • Unpleasant taste;
  • The smell of rot during the cut.
  • Orange dialect a poisonous double of chanterelles

    From the described in this article we can conclude that when collecting mushrooms or as this process is also called “quiet hunting”, you need to be very vigilant and attentive, because there are a lot of nuances in determining the edibility of mushrooms. In the absence of experience, it is better to consult with visent mushroom pickers, since mushroom poisoning can lead to serious consequences, and sometimes deaths.

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