Earth is inhabited by huge hordes of insects. Until now, their exact number is unknown. Currently assumed from 2 to 8 million species. Only one million insects are described, while several thousand new species open every year every year. Some species are so unique that they have only one or more representatives. If we take insect pests, then more than 700 thousand species have them. The number of parasites for both people and agriculture is quite large, but you can learn to fight with them if you know their description and characteristics.
Insect pests of cultivated plants
Not a single country area with the garden is complete without insects. Insects are necessary for pollination of certain agricultural crops and destruction of pests. However, not all insects are useful. There are a huge variety of types of pests that can destroy many cultures and transfer diseases, which then affect the state of the crop and its quality. A lot of insects use leaves for nutrition, which leads to their fleeting death. All of the following insects are extremely dangerous for cultivated plants.
Insects pests needles and foliage
Pests of needles and foliage combine several types of insects whose larvae damage plants during nutrition. They have a second name-interdester insects, since they have the ability to completely and superficially destroy the needles and leaves of various trees, thereby depriving them of the ability to carry out photosynthesis. These insects include two detachments: scaly and webial. They are prone to rapid and mass reproduction, which leads to great damage to vegetation. The number of coniferous and leaf trees is sharply reduced during such outbreaks.
Pine is pine
Insects of pests of roots
The most important pest of the roots is the beetle-shchelkun. It looks very unpretentious, but causes great harm to agricultural land. In particular, not the beetle itself, but its offspring of larvae, which are called “wireworms”. The wires are located in the upper soil layer, where the seeds of plants are first eaten, and then makes its way inside the root system itself. Damaged plants become a victim of saprotrophs, as a result of which they quickly rot. To protect against these pests, warning measures should be taken, because if he already starts, then getting rid of it will be extremely problematic.
Insects of the pests of fruit
As a rule, the main pests of the fruit are larvae of a certain group of insects. This group includes such detachments as butterflies, webding, hardwinged and doublewinged. These pests are endowed with a number of features, which consist in a hidden lifestyle and dependence on the phase of the fruiting of plantings. The activity of damage to seeds and fruits depends on the regularity of fruiting.
Many insects have evolved evolutionarily for a long time to live inside the cones and fruits due to the optional range. These pests are not characterized by outbreaks of reproduction, and the growth of their number is determined by the features of fruiting of the feed rocks. Damaged fruits and seeds negatively affect the renewal of the forest. It is extremely important to protect plantations from these parasitic insects.
Pests of deciduous trees
Almost all deciduous rocks are subject to negative effects of harmful insects that belong to various families. As a rule, they are divided into two groups, some of which harm the kidneys, and others leaves. Insects-hiders differ in their jaw apparatus on gnawing and sucking. Blinds include butterflies and their larvae, which feed on the juice of leaves. This detachment also includes sawders, library beetles and other types of hard winged. When they appear, it is advisable to immediately eliminate the foci of exposure. Sucking insects rapidly multiply and parasitize in large quantities. These include: ticks, coccids, etc.D.
Small oak flea
Nonparamed silk carrier
The hole is silver
Insect pests of fields and gardens
Insects that have a serious negative impact on the yield of fields and gardens are quite a lot. They do not spare any agricultural crops. In order to prevent their stands from harmful insects, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between their types, since some insects can be both safe and extremely dangerous. The measures of struggle with each insect are very individual. The pest can be both an adult insect and its larvae. The most harmful insects for the fields and gardens are May beetles and its larvae.
Migratory Asian locust
Cereal bread scoop
Hessian fly empress
Methods of combating insect pests
In order to protect vegetation from the negative impact of insect pests, a number of different methods are used to exterminate them. The main methods include:
- Mechanical method. This method implies a wide variety of fighter measures to combat pests. For this, various obstacles are created to propagate and move on plantings and crops, and special equipment is also used to catch them. Household instruments include adhesive rings that are applied to trees and plantations;
- Agricultural Technical method. Here the fight against pests is to improve the growth conditions of cultivated plants. For example, deep plowing is able to compete with the larvae of the hooks, blacksmiths, scoop and cloaks. Mass cleaning of fields and gardens from weeds leads to a reduction in the number of insect pests, since many of them develop on weeds. Also, the number of pests may depend on the crop rotation method. Alternating cultures and changing the timing of sowing can contribute to the reduction of the number of harmful insects;
- Physical method. The use of this method of struggle is characterized by temperature fluctuations that can destroy the pests. Electric current strikes can be used that destroy insects.
- Chemical method. The most common type of pest fighting. Its effect consists in spraying chemicals that poison insects and why they die massively. Poisons can be either liquid and vaporshaped. The use of insecticides and pesticides The most popular chemical method of pest combat.
The use of all measures of the fight against insects will avoid negative impact on vegetation. However, all of the above measures in one way or another affect the ecology of the planet. In particular, the use of insecticides and pesticides leads to serious negative consequences, namely a decrease in the biological productivity of the soil, impaired microbiocenosis of groundwater, and the accumulated residues of poisons prevent the restoration of fertility and reduces the value of agricultural products.
Insects can take by surprise even the most experienced summer resident who knows how to deal with primitive parasites. Although on Earth there are a huge number of insect pests, each of which is endowed with its unique characteristics. Ways to combat them are not always the same. However, it is worthwhile to understand that some insects of hiders are similar to useful insects, which are plants of plants, so their mass destruction can lead to negative consequences.