KEFAL (lat. Mugil) this is the name of the radiant fish, which belong to the Kefale family and the detachment. Loban, Ostronos, Pelengas and Singil are the most famous representatives of this family. In total, the family includes 18 types.
On average, the length of Kefali is 40-90 cm. Maximum fish weight 7 kg. This sea inhabitant has a torpedoshaped body, a small head. Scales gray, casts blue. On the belly of scales softer. There are usually dark stripes on the sides of fish. The eyes of the fish protect the eyelids with a thick fat layer. Kefali’s mouth is very small, the lips are thin and have a pointed edge. The tail fin is expressed most vivid in many representatives, it is painted in gray. All fish of the family have 2 dorsal fins, one of them has 4 sharp rays.
Appearance of bright representatives
Singil a fish that has a huge commercial meaning. This marine inhabitant has several brown stripes on the sides. Scales on the back have 1 canal. The length of the body of the fish varies from 20 to 40 cm, but this is so for individuals in the Black Sea. Singil is larger in the Caspian from 50 cm and above.
Loban is another famous KEFALEV representative with a ring eye in front. This fish can be distinguished by a blue spot on the chest fin. On the sides of Kefali 12 longitudinal stripes. The upper lip is much thinner than the lower. The eyelid is quite narrow. Large teeth are located on the upper jaw, small teeth are hidden on the mouth of the mouth. There are golden spots on the gill cover. The length of the body of the fish is 45 cm.
Ostnos can be distinguished by a pointed body. Scales have several tubules. This fish can withstand very low temperatures, but does not like too salty water.
Features of digestion
It is interesting that everything that got into the oral cavity is filtered on the gill stamens of fish. The device is arranged so that there are small bristles on the gill arches. There are pharyngeal pillows above the arcs that are covered with teeth, more like bristles. There are tubercles on the pillows, they together with stamens create a ditch that does not allow silt.
Where it lives
Kefal prefers a warm habitat, it can live in water at a temperature of +3 to +35 ° C. Fish can exist in rather salt water containing 0-35 ppm of salts.
In the waters of Northern Europe you can find 3 types: thicksized Kefal, Singil and Ramadu (Golovach). The thickhaired Kefal constantly migrates in the north of Europe in the summer it rushes to the north, and in winter hurries south. Singil occasionally floats near the shores of France and the British Islands, inhabit the coastal waters of Spain, Italy and Denmark. The view can be found in the Black Sea. Ramada is a frequent guest in France, many populations are located in the Bay of Biscay and Ireland.
Of the species that are numerous in Eurasia, Loban can be found in the Black and Japanese Sea. Pelengas is found in the Black and Mediterranean Sea. Singil lives in the waters from Makhachkala to O. Pure bank.
Keffal feeds on detritus and underwater substrates, small crustaceans and mollusks, as well as worms. Some species prefer algae.
Individuals living in the Caspian Sea become sexually mature in 3-4 years. Pisces inhabiting the Black Sea can start offspring from 4-5 years old. In the inhabitants of Northern Europe, such an opportunity may appear at 8 years of life.
The fish is fertile, it sweeps out about 7 million eggs 1 time. Before spawning, individuals sail to the lower reaches of rivers and in the bays. But Pelengas, for example, propagates only in coastal zones. There is more food there, because Kefal is noticeably gaining weight. Fish spawns from May to August. But Ostonos and Singil begin to multiply only in August-September. Fish leaves the caviar at sea, almost in the water column. After that, individuals again migrate into estuaries or winter at sea.
- Fish stomach has good extensibility in the front food originally gets there. From there, everything that the fish has eaten goes into the muscular part, and then rubs it. Then food enters the intestines. Kefali has a long one, almost 4 times the very body itself.
- Ointeryearold and twoyearold fish prefer to stay close to the bottom, and fry in the water column.
- There are many parasites in fish meat, from helminths, ending with anizakida a deadly worm.
- Keffal lives from 12 to 15 years.
- There is a lot of omega-3, vitamin A and phosphorus, calcium and zinc in fish.
- In 100 g of this sea inhabitant 120 kcal. There are almost no carbohydrates in fish.
- Golovach the largest fish from his family in the waters of Northern Europe.
- In populations of Singil and Ostnos, females are always larger than males. The ratio of the sexes is 3 to 1 in favor of female individuals.
- Kefali’s breeding lagon farm was created in the 16th century on the Adriatic Sea. In Eurasia, estuaries were created for these purposes in the 19th century.
Keffal cannot be eaten by people prone to allergies.
Rules for fishing kefali
Kefal should be caught from July to October. However, the water temperature should be above 10 degrees. It is best to fish in August at this time Kefal is especially actively looking for food in coastal waters.
The best fishing time is early morning. At this time, the fish is especially active. It is better to fish from a pier or bridge, far from wavecutting, if the action takes place in the sea. Moreover, it is important to examine the bottom before starting, sailing 50 m from the shore.
To catch the kefal, you need a 5-meter fishing rod with a thin top and coil from Shimano or Daiwa. Also need a fishing line 0.2. Can also be fished with bottom gear. For example, using a 4meter spinning with a rather large coil. A feeder with a bait is suspended on it.
If the kefal is caught in the river, small floats should be used, their carrying capacity should be about 1-2 g. Suitable both sliding sinker and sinker on the fishing line. Hooks should have short forensics, the optimal size is 5, the leash length should not exceed 0, 14 mm.
Kefali bait should consist of bread and water. You can add flour, cheese and sprats to it and it. If the fisherman tries his hand at the mouth of the river, use rainworms. Before entering the water, small pebbles are added to it and balls are formed. As for the bait, then for it they use dung worms and bread. The bait should be placed above the fishing site about 10 cm above the bottom.
This fish often pecks uncertainly, because it must often be hooked. It will not work out to quickly pull out the prey, so you should not rush. You can only do this with a set, sometimes it comes out and carefully bring the kefal to the shore.
One of the most popular recipes in the Caucasus is Kefali Bugglama. About 278 kcal in one portion.
To cook this dish, you need a pound of potatoes, half a liter of water, 400 g of kefali, several tomatoes, garlic to taste, 2 onions, red in front and cilantro. You can also add paprika and hop-sunels.
First you need to cut the already washed and gutted fish into cubes, 5 cm each. Then remove the peel from tomatoes and cut in the same way. To quickly get rid of the skin, tomatoes are scalded with boiling water and hold a minute in it. Next, the tomato is taken out and cooled, after which the skin easily leaves.
Further, the cilantro is very finely chopped with a knife, the onions are cut with rings. Chili should be cut into cubes, before that the core must be cut out. Fish is laid out in a deep baking dish, then potatoes from bows, chili pepper and tomatoes. The oven is heated to 180 g and the dish is sent for 45-50 minutes. You can add water to the form.
The finished dish is served with a cilantro and any side dish
Another popular recipe is pickled kefal. To create a dish, you will need 2 carcasses of kefali, onions, black pepper, mustard with sugar, salt, wine vinegar, water and vegetable oil.
First, the kefal must be turned into fillets. A sharp knife should cut the pulp from the head to the tail. Then the fish is slightly salted, for this you need 1 tablespoon of both sugar and salt.
Then you need to cook spices for the marinade. Black pepper, mustard and bay leaf will come in handy here. You can add onion rings. Then it is worth pouring 150 ml of water into the pan, put spices there, adding another half a teaspoon of salt. This mixture is brought to a boil and turned off. While the future marinade is cooled, the fish is laid in a ceramic container and covered with onions. 2 teaspoons of oil and 4 tablespoons of a 6-percent vinegar wine are added to the marinade. You can use apple. Fish is poured with marinade and refrigerated for several hours.
Another dish that many will like is a fried kefal in Odessa. To do this, you will need 250 g of fish, breading crackers, several eggs, salt, black ground pepper and olive oil.
First, the kefal is cleaned and washed under running water, cut into pieces and pulled out all the bones. Next, beat eggs with salt and pepper. Fish fillet is poured with this mixture, after which it is dipped in breading crackers. Further, fish is fried in olive oil until golden crust appears.
Adriatic fish soup is also a good way to prepare this fish. It will need 1 kg of perch, 200 g of fliles and 300 g of kefali, 300-400 g of squid, several tomatoes, 10 g of crackers, 2 pcs on onions, 5 g of celery, bay leaf, 50 ml of wine vinegar, olive oil, salt, salt and sugar to taste, parsley.
First you need to clean the fish from the gills. The onion and heads of fish should be placed in the pan. Then add celery with bay leaf to the broth and pour water. After bringing to a boil, you need to remove the foam, and then continue cooking until the coworn in the broth is ready. It will take about 30 minutes.
Then you need to finely chop the other onion and put it in a preheated pan. After the onion has become golden, vinegar is poured there and fried for several more minutes. Then tomatoes, sugar and pepper are added to the pan. After 15 minutes, the fry is ready. If the broth is ready, it will be pranked through a sieve in a pan. After that, the roast is added to the broth and the soup is brought to a boil. Then pieces of the remaining fish of all types and greens with squid are added to the soup, they also do not turn off until the soup boils.
It is better to serve a dish with crackers. Parsley is often placed on top of Adriatic soup.