Kenaf (lat. Hibiscus Cannabinus) is a large and powerful plant, also known as Javanese jute or bombing hemp. It is from hot countries, therefore in Eurasia it grows only in the warmest regions. It is not grown for decorative purposes, Kenaf has exceptionally industrial significance.
What kind of plant Kenaph
Kenaph is an annual radiant plant from the genus of hibiscus, the family of mall. Of the fifty hundred kenaph species, only one is grown as an agricultural culture hemp hibiscus (Hibiscus Cannabinus).
The plant is of industrial importance and is used mainly for the manufacture of gross fabrics intended for technical purposes. Kenaph bags almost do not get wet, in their quality fiber is equivalent to jute. Kenaph leaves used in industry are harvested all summer. Seeds are collected from the beginning of autumn until November.
How it looks
Botanics distinguish 5 varieties of hemp hibiscus, they are distinguished by the color and shape of the petals. This is a tall and powerful plant that can grow up to 3-5 m in height.
Features of the appearance of Kenaph:
- Stem. Erect, naked or branched, rounded or ribbed. Diameter-1.5-2.5 cm. The coloring is diverse-red, light green, purple. Depends on the illumination of the site.
- The root system. Rod. The length of the roots reaches 2 m. It differs in strong branching. Most of the roots lies at a depth of 0.5 m.
- Leaves. They can be heartshaped or lanceolate, they have elongated petioles with small thorns. The leaves are whole or consist of several (from 3 to 7) blades. The more the leaves are cut, the sooner the maturation. But the old Kenaph has less highquality raw materials.
- Flowers. They look like mallow. Large, fivepetal. Forty stamens in the stamen column. The pedunks are small no more than 7 cm. Budons are in the sinuses of leaves they begin to grow from the base of the stem to the very top. Color-white, cream, pale lilac. In the center-a cherry-red spot. Flowering of one bud goes on a day.
- Seeds. In the place of flowers, fruits are formed pubescent boxes with five nests. One plant gives 15-30 fruits. Seeds are three-sided, wedge-shaped, dark gray, crumbs.
Kenaf’s reddish stem occurs in welllit solar areas. Such plants give less highquality fiber than green.
Where it grows
In the wild, the plant grows in India and Africa, in the tropical belt. Over time, it began to grow it in China, America and other countries. The largest plantations are in the homeland of plants in India. It is currently also actively grown in Brazil and Central America. In the CSC, Kenaf was raised only in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Meaning in the national economy
Kenaf contains a bast-up to 30%, and fiber-16-24%. In seeds about 20% oil. The stems are used to obtain primary raw materials durable, flexible, hygroscopic, and secondary soft and elastic.
What is made from Kenaph:
- Bags, packaging materials, tarpaulin, tablecloths, carpets, ropes, ropes, twine are made from the fiber.
- From a mixture of fiber and polyester threads (85% and 15%, respectively), they make insulation with high thermal inertia in the summer it saves from the heat, and in winter from the cold. He also absorbs noise well. This material is widely in demand in the construction industry.
- The process of processing stems-a fire is used for the manufacture of cardboard and paper products.
- Seeds are used for the manufacture of food and technical oil. The latter uses soap, paint and tanning industry. Edible oil is on the hemp, and to taste for peanuts.
- Cake obtained after squeezing the oil, let live and fertilize.
- Young shoots in a number of countries are sent to animal feed, and young leaves are added to food. The leaves are sour in taste, but very useful, they have a lot of fiber, potassium and calcium, magnesium, lignin, fatlike and pectin substances.
- Washing leaves, stems and seeds are used to prepare a healing infusion, which is used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, dermatological and gynecological diseases.
Kenaf refers to heat and photophilous plants. It is grown in the fields at a short light bottom. It does not tolerate thickening and lack of light, under these conditions, plants are stunted, weak, unsuitable for industrial use.
Features of Cenaph cultivation:
- Optimum temperature +23 … +25 ° C. When ripening seeds +14 … +16 ° C.
- The best soils are loams rich in humus, meadow and superficial soils, sulfuries.
- RN indicator-6-6.8. Survival worsens on salted soils, and yield falls by 30%.
- The crusting does not allow to grow kenaf after legumes and grain crops, alfalfa and corn. The best predecessor is cotton.
How Kenaf is grown:
- Soil preparation. It is cooked since autumn. Carry out deep sinking plowing. And early in the spring the Earth is 1-2 times cultivated and harrowed. Before sowing, prepared soil is aligned.
- Landing. Kenaf is afraid of frosts, so they sow it after the establishment of steady heat at +15 … +16 ° C. The seeds are prewrapped and dried. Sow them with a widerow or tape method. After planting, they are filled with a thin layer of soil.
- Care. It consists in periodic loosening of the aisles. This prevents the formation of the crust and the growth of weeds. When the soil is hardened after watering, there is a risk of root rot, and loosening allows you to prevent these diseases. When growing kenaph, the soil is also cultivated, plundered, shabby in the aisles.
- Watering. Kenaf is moisture loving, therefore, with a lack of precipitation, irrigation is carried out. Moisture deficiency leads to a deterioration in plant development, waterlogging to decay of the roots. The increased water need occurs at the stage of the formation of buds and flowering. Kenaf is necessarily watered before cleaning this simplifies the process of separation of bast and wood.
- Top dressing. So that Kenaph actively increases the green mass, it is fed several times. In the fall, under plowing, they are introduced by rotted manure and other organics, as well as potassiumcontaining fertilizers.
During the pasture of sprouts and the beginning of the development of plants, potassium and phosphorus are introduced. Nitrogen is made a month after the shoots appear. A month later, the nitrogen is introduced again during the formation of buds.
Diseases and pests
Kenaf is a hardy and strong plant, which is rarely sick. Most often, it is affected by root rot rhizontoniosis. Usually they appear due to violations of agricultural technology-neglect of etching and excessive moisture. The planting of Kenaf after peas or rice helps to prevent infection.
The most dangerous is considered the grunting scoop, clicks of clicks, gall nematode, stem moth, cotton scoop, turf ants. In case of mass lesions, appropriate insecticides are used to combat the pests of the agrarian.
To get highquality bast, the crop is removed at the stage of technical maturation. It occurs when approximately 50% of plants are covered with flowers. The process of manual and is characterized by laboriousness, although it is carried out using mechanized devices.
Features of processing stems:
- Between cutting and processing should pass no more than 30 minutes.
- Use a radiant machine it separates the bast from the fiber.
- Next, the raw materials are laid out on the stubble and left to dry in the open air. Drying time-3-4 days. If you are late with processing, the volume of raw materials are reduced. Lub is dried to a state of humidity not more than 14%.
- Dried raw materials are put into bales and transported to the place of storage or processing.
Seeds are removed with reapers, waiting for 50% of the bushes will become brown 2-3 seed boxes.
How the seeds are removed:
- The stems are mowed and left in the field for drying.
- Raw materials are collected in sheaves and dried again.
- Dried sheaves are threshed.
- The resulting seeds are cleaned, sorted, dried, and then transported to the place of storage or processing.
Kenaf, despite the tropical origin, can be grown in Eurasia, in its southern regions. Good crops and high quality of raw materials are achieved due to competent agricultural technology and the use of domestic breeding varieties.