The Kuznetsk coal basin is the largest mineral deposit in Eurasia. In this region, the extraction and processing of a valuable resource is carried out. The area of the territory is 26.7 thousand km².
The coal basin is located in Western Siberia (in its southern part). Most of the area is located in the Kemerovo region, which is famous for its wealth in minerals, including brown and hard coal. The territory is located in a pit of shallow depth, surrounded by the medium-high highlands of the Kuznetsk Alatau on the one hand and the Salairsky Kryazh upland, as well as the mountain-taiga region of Gornaya Shoria on the other.
The region has another name Kuzbass. Taiga spreads in the eastern and southern outskirts, but basically the surface of the basin has the character of a steppe and forest-steppe. The main rivers of the area are the Tom, Chumysh, Inya and Yaya. In the zone of the coal basin there are large industrial centers, including Prokopyevsk, Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo. In these regions they are engaged in coal industry, black and nonferrous metallurgy, energy, chemistry and engineering.
The researchers found that about 350 layers of coal of different types and capacities are concentrated in the carbonocus. They are placed unevenly, for example, 19 layers are included in the Tarbagan retinue, while 237 falls on the share of Balakhon and Kalchuginskaya. The highest power indicators are 370 m. As a rule, layers from 1.3 to 4 m prevail, but in some regions the value reaches 9, 15, and sometimes 20 m.
The maximum mine depth is 500 m. In most cases, depths apply to 200 m.
In the areas of the pool there is an opportunity to get fossils of different qualities. However, experts in this area claim that here they are one of the best. Thus, the optimal coal should contain 5-15% moisture, 4-16% of the impurities of ash, the minimum amount of phosphorus in the composition (up to 0.12%), not more than 0.6% sulfur and the least concentration of volatile substances.
The main problem of the Kuznetsk coal basin includes an unsuccessful location. The fact is that the territory is far from the main areas that could become potential consumers, therefore it is considered unprofitable. As a result of this, difficulties arise in transporting minerals, since railway networks in this region are poorly developed. As a result, there are significant transportation costs, which leads to a decrease in the competitiveness of coal, as well as the prospects for the development of the pool in the future.
One of the key problems is the environmental situation of the region. Since the intensity of economic development is high, a large number of enterprises mining and processing coal are functioning near settlements. In these regions, the environmental condition is characterized as crisis and even catastrophic. Especially susceptible to the negative impact of the city of Mezhdurechensk, Novokuznetsk, Kaltan, Osinniki and others. As a result of negative exposure, massive rocks are destroyed, groundwater modes change, the atmosphere is subjected to chemical pollution.
You can mine coal in the Kuznetsk basin in three ways: underground, hydraulic and open. This type of product is purchased by private individuals and small enterprises. Nevertheless, coals of different qualities of both low and high varieties are mined on the territory of the pool.
An increase in coal production in an open way will be a strong impetus for the development of the region and the transport network. Already in 2030, the share of the Kemerovo region in coal mining should be 51% of the total country.
Methods of coal production
The underground method of coal mining is quite common. With it, you can get highquality raw materials, but at the same time this is the most dangerous method. There are often situations in which workers receive serious injuries. Coal obtained by this method contains minimal ash and number of volatile substances.
An open method is suitable in cases where coal deposits are shallow. To extract a mineral in quarries, workers remove overburden (often using a bulldozer). This method is gaining great popularity, because fossils are much more expensive.
The hydraulic method is used only where there is access to groundwater.
The main consumers of coal are enterprises engaged in such industries as coking and chemical. Mining plays an important role in creating energy fuel. Foreign countries are important consumers. Coal is exported to Japan, Turkey, UK and Finland. Every year, deliveries increase and new contracts are concluded with other states, for example, with Asian countries. The southern part of Eurasia and Western Siberia, as well as the Urals, remain permanent consumers in the domestic market.
The bulk of the reserves are located in such geological and economic areas as Leninsky and nonsense. About 36 billion is concentrated here. T of coal. In Tom-Usinsky and Prokopyevsko-Kiselevsky regions there are 14 billion. T, Kondom and Mrasskaya 8 billion. T, Kemerovo and Baidaevskaya 6.6 billion. t. To date, 16% of all stocks have been mastered by industrial enterprises.