Lake Ladoga is located in the Republic of Karelia and the Leningrad Region of Eurasia. It is considered one of the largest freshwater lakes in Europe. Its area is about 18 thousand. sq. kilometers. The bottom is uneven: in one place the depth can be 20 meters, and in the other 70 meters, but the maximum 230 meters. 35 rivers flows into this water area, and only Neva flows. Ladozhye is divided into northern and southern, eastern and western.
Formation of the water area
Scientists say that Lake Ladoga has a glacial and texture origin. About 300-400 million in the place of his basin. years ago there was a sea. The glaciers were affected by the relief, which led to the rise of the sushi. When the glacier began to retreat, a glacial lake with fresh water appeared, an Antsille lake appeared, which was connected to Ladoga. New tectonic processes of 8.5 thousand occur. years ago, thanks to which the Karelian isthmus was formed, and the lake became isolated. Over the past 2.5 thousand. the relief has not changed.
In the Middle Ages in Russia, the lake was called “NEC”, and in Scandinavia “Aldoga”. However, its real name comes from Ladoga (cities). Now this is the name of not only the city, but the river and the lake. It is difficult to determine which object was the first to be called Ladoga.
In the area of Lake Ladoga, the type of climate was formed moderate and transitional: from continental to sea. It depends on the circulation of air masses and on the location. The amount of solar radiation is small here, so moisture evaporates slowly. The average number of days a year is 62. Basically, the weather is cloudy and cloud. The duration of daylight hours at different times of the year changes from 5 hours. 51 min. up to 18 hours. 50 min. From the end of May to midJuly there are “white nights” when the sun sits over the horizon about 9OO, and the evening smoothly goes into the morning.
Lake water resources are the main climateforming factor in the Ladoga area. The water area helps to smooth out some climatic indicators. So air masses from the continent, passing above the surface of the lake, become marine. The minimum atmosphere temperature drops to8.8 degrees Celsius, and the maximum rises to +16.3 degrees, the average indicators +3.2 degrees. The average annual rainfall is 475 millimeters.
Despite the fact that even in summer the water in the lake is very cold, a large number of people come here to rest every year, so there are beaches for tourists. Many vacationers ride catamarans and kayaks.
There are 660 islands on the lake, and basically they concentrated in the northern part of the reservoir. Among the largest are the archipelags of the Western and Valaam, and the largest islands are Rieckalansari, Valaam, Mantsinsaari, Toulolanders, Kilpol. On some islands, monasteries (Konevy, Valaam) are built, where the relics of the saints rest and the sacred relics are rested. There is a memorial “Road of life” here.
On the territory of the Ladoga basin, the Nizhnevir Reserve is located, where various types of fauna live, including rare. Such types of flora grow here:
The bird’s world consists of seagulls and geese, cranes and swans, waders and ducks, owls and owls. The plankton of the reservoir consists of 378 species. Various types of fish are found here (trout, Ladoga slingshot, a blue, bream, salmon, cheese, rowing, Palya, Redper, roach, perch, catfish, asp, pike, etc.D.). Also here is a ringleled seal, listed in the Red Book of Animals of Eurasia.