Science lemonology is engaged in the study of lakes. By origin, scientists distinguish several types, among which there are tectonic lakes. They are formed as a result of the movement of lithospheric plates and the appearance of recesses in the earth’s crust. Thus formed the deepest lake in the world Baikal and the largest in the area the Caspian Sea. In the East African Rift System, a large break was formed, where a number of lakes were concentrated:
In form, tectonic lakes are very narrow and deep reservoirs, with steep shores. Their bottom is usually located below the ocean level. It has a clear outline resembles a curved broken curve line. At the bottom you can find traces of various forms of relief. The shores of tectonic lakes consist of hard rocks, and they are weakly erosion. On average, the deepsea zone of lakes of this type is up to 70%, and shallow water no more than 20%. The water of tectonic lakes is not the same, but in general it has a low temperature.
The largest tectonic lakes in the world
In the Suna River basin there are both large and medium tectonic lakes:
Among the lakes of tectonic origin of Kyrgyzstan should be called Son-Kul, Chatyr-Kul and Issyk-Kul. There are also several lakes formed as a result of the tectonic fault of the hard membrane of the Earth on the territory of the TransUral Plain. These are Argayash and Kaldy, Uelgi and Tishki, Shablish and Sugoyak. In Asia, there are also tectonic lakes Kukunor, Khubsugul, Urmia, Biva and Van.
In Europe, there are also a number of lakes of tectonic origin. This is Geneva and Vettern, Como and Bodenskoye, Balaton and Lago-Majore. Among the American lakes of tectonic origin, the great North American lakes should be mentioned. The same type of Winnipeg, Atabaska and the Big Bear Lake.
Tectonic lakes are located on the plains or in the area. They have significant depth and huge sizes. In the process of formation of lakes, not only folds of the lithosphere, but also breaks of the earth’s crust take part. The bottom of tectonic lakes is below the oceanic level. Such reservoirs are found on all continents of the Earth, but the largest number of them is located in the zone of fault of the earth’s crust.