A large horseshoe is the largest kind of bat in Europe. Due to its size and appearance, it is difficult to confuse it with other bats. Representatives of this species live for a long time 20 years. For comparison, it is worth noting that other bats live an average of 12-15 years. They got their name due to large sizes and a peculiar structure of the nose, reminiscent of the form of horseshoes.
A large horseshoe is a type of chordly chord. They prefer to live alone, but often form small colonies. With the onset of twilight they fly out to hunt. Fly measuredly, noisily waving wings. Most often a straightforward flight. Hunts a large horseshoe nearby of his refuge. In the diet, insects such as hardwinged, scoops and curses prevail. Also, do not mind enjoy butterflies, larvae, beetles. The easiest way to find at night. Echolocation signals are used to capture production. Their frequency is 75-80 kHz.
In the daytime, mammals rest in their shelter. As it, they choose caves, grottoes, attics of abandoned buildings. Can settle in the hollows of trees and promoons of river cliffs. In winter, choose a shelter with a stable temperature ( + 1 up to + 10 ° C). At this time of the year, representatives of this species form a colony for joint wintering. Their number can reach 500 individuals. The duration of the hibernation depends on the temperature. If the winter is quite warm, and the first insects begin to appear, then a large horseshoe can start hunting at this time of year. However, most often hibernation begins in October and lasts in April.
In the summer, a sexually mature female is born 1 cub. It is interesting to note that they are born with their eyes closed, and open them only on the 7th day. A month later, the cub already knows how to fly on his own.
The wool of the large hillock on the upper side of the body has a dark red color. However, there are also individuals of dark brown shade. The lower side of the body is most often white, but it is also gray-white. The front of the face in its form resembles a horseshoe. The saddle is very narrowed in the middle part of the face. The head is massive and quite large. Body length is 7 cm. They weigh about 30 g.
For reference: cubs of large horseshoe be born completely gray. In the process of growing up, the color of the wool gradually changes.
You can find out representatives of this type by large nose. It contains a wide leathery crest. It serves as a kind of device with which bats make sounds. They spread at a distance of 7m., While the signals of other representatives of the genus are heard only by 2 m.
A large horsesholican beamed in the Red Book as a rare, enduring look. The brood colonies are quite vulnerable to anthropogenic effects. The overall degradation of the biot has a great influence on the reduction of the population.
For reference: the highest mortality among representatives of this kind is observed in the first year of their life, most often during wintering.
Where it lives
Large horseshoe is quite widely common. He lives on the territory from North Africa to Eurasia. It was also discovered in France, Asia, Spain, the Caucasus, in the Himalayas, Tibet. Bat mice are found in China, Japan. It is also found in Eurasia. Most often these are the North Caucasus, Krasnodar Territory and Dagestan.
As a dwelling, he chooses the foothills and lowlands. Can settle in plain areas if they have characteristic of mammals data. There is a large horseshoe in the mountains, at an altitude of 3500 m. above sea level.