Leo (Panthera Leo) is a large mammalian of the Felidae family (cat). Males weigh more than 250 kg. Lions settled in the countries of Africa south of Sahara and Asia, adapted to meadow and mixed conditions with trees and grass.
- Types of lions
- Asian Leo (Panthera Leo Persica)
- Senegal Lev (Panthera Le Senegalensis)
- Berberian Leo (Panthera Leo LEO)
- NorthKolisian Leo (Panthera Leo Azandica)
- East African Leo (Panthera Leo Nubica)
- Southwest African Leo (Panthera Leo Bleyenberghi)
- Southeast African Leo (Panthera Leo Krugeri)
- White Lion
- Brief information about lions
- Features of an anatomy lion
- How lions build relationships among themselves
- What lions eat
- Features of table etiquette of predatory cats
- Propagation of lions in nature
- Lions and people
Types of lions
Asian Leo (Panthera Leo Persica)
It has noticeable bundles of wool on the elbows and at the end of the tail, powerful claws and sharp fangs with which they drag the prey on the ground. Males have color from yellowish-orange to dark brown, sandy or brown-yellowish lioness. Grive of Lviv dark color, rarely black, in short than that of the African lion.
Senegal Lev (Panthera Le Senegalensis)
The smallest among African lions south of Sahara inhabit Western Africa from the Central African Republic to Senegal in the amount of 1800 individuals in small prides.
Berberian Leo (Panthera Leo LEO)
Also known as the North African lion. This subspecies was previously met in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria. Out due to non-electoral hunting. The last lion was shot in 1920 in Morocco. Today, some lions in captivity are considered descendants of the Berberian lions and weigh more than 200 kg.
NorthKolisian Leo (Panthera Leo Azandica)
Usually one continuous color, light brown or golden yellow. Color becomes lighter from the back to the paws. Male manes have a dark shade of gold or brown, it is noticeably thicker and longer than the rest of the fur on the body.
East African Leo (Panthera Leo Nubica)
Found in Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. They have less curved backs and longer paws than other subspecies. Small bundles of wool grow on the knee joints of males. Manees seem combed back, and in older specimens a mane is more magnificent than in young lions. Males of Lviv in highlands with a thicker mane than living in lowpowered areas.
Southwest African Leo (Panthera Leo Bleyenberghi)
It is found in Western Zambia and Zimbabwe, Angola, Zaire, Namibia and North Botswan. These lions are one of the largest among all types of lions. Males weigh about 140–242 kg, females are about 105–170 kg. Male manes are lighter than other subspecies.
Southeast African Leo (Panthera Leo Krugeri)
Found in the South African National Park and the Swaziland Royal National Park. Most males have a black welldeveloped mane of this subspecies. The weight of males is about 150–250 kg, females 110–182 kg.
Individuals with white wool live in the Krueger National Park and in the Tumbavati reserve in East of South Africa in captivity. This is not a type of lion, but animals with a genetic mutation.
Brief information about lions
In ancient times, lions roamed on every continent, but disappeared from North Africa and South-West Asia in historical times. Until the end of the Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most common large ground mammals after a person.
For two decades in the second half of the 20th century, Africa had a decline in Lviv population by 30-50%. Loss of habitat and conflicts with people are the causes of the disappearance of the species.
Lions live from 10 to 14 years in nature. Up to 20 years live in captivity. In nature, males do not live longer than 10 years because wounds from the struggle with other males shorten their lives.
Despite the nickname “King of the Jungle”, lions do not live in the jungle, but live in the savannah and meadows, where there are bushes and trees. Lions are adapted for fishing on pastures.
Features of an anatomy lion
Lviv has three types of teeth
- Incisors, small teeth in the front of the mouth, capture and tear the meat.
- Fangs, four largest teeth (on both sides of the incisors), I reach a length of up to 7 cm, tear the skin and meat.
- Farm, the most sharp teeth in the back of the mouth act like scissors for cutting meat.
Paws and claws
The paws are like a cat’s paws, but much, much more. They have five fingers on the front paws and four on the back. Imprint with a lion’s paw, will help to guess how many animal years, a male or a female.
Lions produce claws. This means that they stretch out, and then delay, hide under the fur. Claws grow up to 38 mm in length, durable and sharp. The fifth finger on the front paw is rudimentary, acts as a thumb in a person, holds prey while eating.
The lion’s tongue is rough, like sandpaper, covered with spikes called papillae, which are facing back and clean the meat from bones and dirt from fur. These spikes make the tongue rude if the lion licks the back of the hand several times, it will be left without skin!
Lionians are born with grayish wool, with dark spots covering most of the back, paws and muzzles. These spots help the cubs merge with the environment, making them almost invisible in bushes or high grass. The spots disappear at about three months, although some last longer and go into adulthood. In the teenage stage of life, fur becomes thicker and golden.
At the age of 12 to 14 months, long wools around the chest and neck begin to grow in men’s cubs. The mane lengthens and darkens with age. In some lions, it passes through the stomach and on the hind legs. Lionesses have no mane. Mane:
The length and shade of the mane of the lion depends on where it lives. Lions living in warmer places have a shorter, brighter mane than individuals in cold climate. The color changes because the fluctuations of temperature are observed during the year.
Sensitive organ near the nose helps to feel the environment. Each Usik has a black spot in the root. These spots are unique for each lion, just like fingerprints. Since there are no two lions with the same pattern, researchers distinguish animals in nature through them.
The lion has a long tail that helps to balance. The tail of the lion has a black brush at the end, which appears at the age of 5 to 7 months. Animals use a brush to draw a pride through high grass. Females raise their tail, give the signal “follow me” to the cubs, use it to communicate with each other. The tail conveys how the animal feels.
Lionians are born blind and open their eyes when it turns three to four days. Their eyes are first blue-gray and become orange-brown at the age of two to three months.
The lion’s eyes are large with round pupils, which are three times more human. The second eyelid, called a flashing membrane, cleanses and protects the eye. Lions do not move their eyes from side to side, so they turn their heads to look at the objects located on the side.
At night, the coating on the back of the eye reflects the moonlight. This makes a lion vision 8 times better than that of a person. White fur under the eyes reflects even more light in the pupil.
The glands around the chin, lips, cheeks, mustache, tail and between the fingers of the paws produce oily substances that retain the fur healthy and waterproof. People have similar glands that make hair oily, if you do not wash their hair for a while.
Sense of smell
A small area in the mouth allows the lion to “feel” the smells in the air. Showing the fangs and protruding tongues, the lions catch the smell to understand whether it comes from someone who should eat.
Lviv has good hearing. They turn the ears in different directions, listen to rustles around, and hear prey from a distance of 1.5 km.
How lions build relationships among themselves
Lions live in social groups, prides, they consist of female females, their offspring and one or two adult males. Lions are the only cats that live in groups. Ten and forty lions form pride. Each pride has its own territory. Lions do not allow other predators to hunt their area.
Lviv’s roar is individual, and they use it to prevent lions from other prides or single individuals, so that they do not go into foreign territory. Lion’s loud roar is heard at a distance of up to 8 km.
Leo develops speed up to 80 km per hour at short distances and jumps over a distance of more than 9 m. Most victims run much faster than the middle lion. Therefore, they hunt in groups, pursue or quietly selected for prey. At first they surround it, then make a quick, sudden jump from tall grass. Females hunt, males help if it is necessary to kill a large animal. To do this, use advanced claws that act as capture hooks that hold prey.
What lions eat
Lions carnivorous and scavengers. Carrion is more than 50% of their diet. Lions eat animals that died from natural causes (diseases) killed by other predators. They monitor the spinning vultures, because it means that there is a dead or wounded animal nearby.
Lions feed on large prey, such as:
They even kill elephants, but only when all adults from the pride participate in the hunt. Even elephants are afraid of hungry lions. When food becomes little, lions hunt less prey or attack other predators. Lions eat up to 69 kg of meat per day.
The grass in which lions live is not short and not green, but tall and in most cases light brownish. Lviv fur of the same shade as this grass, therefore it is difficult to see them.
Features of table etiquette of predatory cats
Lions pursue prey for hours, but they commit murder in a matter of minutes. After the female publishes a low roar, calls for Pride to join the feast. First, adults eat, then females, then cubs. Lions devour prey for about 4 hours, but rarely eat to the bones, hyenas and vultures finish the rest. After eating, the lion can drink water for 20 minutes.
To avoid dangerous midday heat, Lions hunt at dusk when the dull light of the setting sun helps to hide from prey. Lviv has good night vision, so the darkness does not represent a problem for them.
Propagation of lions in nature
The lioness is ready to become a mother when the female is 2-3 years old. Lviv cubs are called Lionians. Pregnancy lasts 3 1/2 months. Kittens are born blind. The eyes do not open until they turn about a week, and they do not see well until they turn about two weeks. Lviv does not have a den (at home), where they live for a long time. The lioness hides cubs in a dense shrub, ravines or stones. If the shelter was noticed by other predators, then mom will move the cubs to a new shelter. Lioness represent the pride at the age of about 6 weeks.
Kittens are vulnerable when the lioness goes hunting, and she needs to leave the cubs. In addition, when the new male exposes the alpha male from the pride, he kills him cubs. Mothers then mate with a new leader, which means that new kittens will be his offspring. Litter from 2 to 6, usually 2-3 lion, is born, and only 1-2 cubs will survive until the moment of meeting with the pride. After that they are protected by the whole flock.
Lions and people
Lviv has no natural enemies, except for people who have hunted for centuries. Once Lions were distributed throughout Southern Europe and South Asia to the east to North and Central India and all over Africa.
The last lion in Europe died between 80-100 g. n.e. By 1884, the only lions that remained in India were in the forest of Gere, where only a dozen remained them. They probably died out in other places in South Asia, for example, in Iran and Iraq, shortly after 1884. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Asian lions have been protected by local laws, and their number has steadily grew over the years.
Lions are destroyed in northern Africa. Between 1993 and 2015, the number of lions halved in Central and West Africa. In the southern part of Africa, the population remains stable and even increased. Lions live in remote areas that are not inhabited by a person. The spread of agriculture and an increase in the number of settlements in former lion’s territories are the causes of death.
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