Strict (lat. Gyromitra) a genus of marsupial mushrooms of the dyscinovic family (lat. Discinaceae). The name Gyromitra comes from Gyro, meaning “round”, and Mitra, meaning “turban” or “headdress”, which clearly refers to a large intricate mushroom hat. The most popular type of mushrooms from this genus Gyromitra Esculenta.
Gyromitra Esculenta or a false grip is an ascomycetric mushroom from the genus Gyromitra, widespread in Europe and North America. Usually it bears fruit on sandy soils under coniferous trees in the spring and early summer. The fruit body, or mushroom, is an incorrect brain-shaped hat of dark brown color, which can reach 10 cm in height and 15 cm in a width located on a strong white leg up to 6 cm high. Despite the potential mortal danger in raw consumption, Gyromitra Esculenta is a popular delicacy in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and in the area of the upper great lakes of North America.
It is important to note that in most old culinary books and reference books on mushrooms, as well as on some modern Internet sites, you can read statements that the drying of the lines makes them safe for use. However, this is not true, and dried lines should be boiled again after recovery, just like fresh.
Types of lines
There are eight worldfamous varieties of lines. All of them are poisonous for humans, but some species become suitable for consumption after boiling in water.
Ordinary line (lat. Gyromitra evculenta)
The hat is unevenly corrugated, resembles brain folds or a folded corrugated tissue; dark, ocher brown, brown, reddish-brown, sometimes lighter (white shape of the fruit body); dumb; the diameter of the cap is from 2 to 8 cm; inside is white and hollow; The hat is fraught with a leg;
The stem is white or slightly yellowish outside, hollow and white inside, often with voids; The height of the stem is from 3 to 7 cm; diameter about 1.5-3 cm.;
The pulp is solid, 1-2 mm thick with a pleasant smell of unripe nuts;
Spore powder is almost ellipsoid, colorless; 18 x 24 x 8 x 14 micrometers; contain two fat drops at the poles, white rash;
Distribution usually from April to May, often appears in March, fruit bodies can be detected until midJune; It grows mainly in sandy pine and spruce forests, in lowpowered and foothill areas, on cuts, in forest crops (nurseries), on naked forest soil, next to trees or between their roots;
Double Giant Gigas is very similar to the giant line;
Notes. In many atlases, a giant line was marked as an edible mushroom. However, in raw form it is poisonous, but not always to the same extent and not for everyone. The fungus contains a poisonous girometrin ingredient. This mushroom is toxic and it cannot be categorically consumed; This ingredient is destroyed during heat treatment. Nevertheless, many severe and even fatal poisonings were recorded after eating this line; There is a suspicion that the poisonous agent is to a greater extent the decay products of proteins that make up the mushroom, since the mushroom grows extremely slowly, and fruit bodies are preserved for a very long time;
Symptoms of poisoning thirst, vomiting, abdominal pain, drowsiness, cramps.
Giant line (lat. Gyromitra gigas)
Hat of spherical irregular shape. She also takes other forms and outlines. The structure is complex, from less wavy. Outwardly and internally gyrus, lobed. The color is light blond, light brown, yellowish-brown. The size of the fruit body as a whole from 5-18 cm. Partially fuses with the stem. The surface is smooth, slightly mucous. The wall of the head is thin, covering the stem. The inside of the fruit body is white. The edge is truncated, slightly rounded, white;
The leg is very short, from 1/5 to 1/4 of the height of the hat and often the same thickness, so the transition from the hat to the leg is not indicated, white, the surface is very rough and wrinkled, hollow;
The pulp is thin, milky and fragile; The pericarp, however, seems elastic and flexible, white, does not change the color when pressed and cut, slightly mushroom smell without a pronounced taste;
Distribution appears in early spring, occurs in wet areas, rather on wet, humus and acidified soil, in deciduous and mixed forests and tugal thickets;
Use inedible and supposedly poisonous;
Double very similar to an ordinary line (lat. Morchella evculenta) can be distinguished only under a microscope, by different disputes. Morchella Esculenta is usually darker and has a less rounded stem.
Autumn line (lat. Gyromitra infula)
The head is dark, reddish-brown to chestnut-brown, with two (rarely three or four) ascending, more or less pointed folds, 20-130 x 30-110 mm, the center is hollow;
The leg is dirty white, pinkish to bodily reduced, 30-110 x 5-30 mm., Usually somewhat flattened, expanded at the top, narrowed at the base; the surface is sometimes wavy or with cavernous cavities; chamber or hollow in old fruit bodies;
The pulp is waxy, very fragile, the taste and smell pleasant;
Spores of cream color;
Meaning quite rarely, in the fall, in coniferous forests, on stumps and wood lying in the ground, more often in the mountains. Sometimes it can appear in the spring;
Notes. There are several species belonging to this genus. All of them form fruit bodies with a more or less wavy head and leg. They grow on earth and are usually dangerous poisonous. Ordinary line (lat. Gyromitra evculenta) is deadly poisonous and grows mainly in the spring on the basis in the soil in dry and sand pine forests. Similar giant line (lat. Gyromitra gigas) also grows in the spring and has a lighter color.
Buffin line (lat. Gyromitra Brunnea)
This spring false sweat, apparently, is common only in the Midwest and in the eastern part of the United States. The appearance of this fungus is extremely diverse, but it can be distinguished from other Gyromitra mushrooms by its brown hat to reddish-brown color, which is clearly lobe and often gathers in two or three points, creating a saddish look. The surface of the lower side of the hat from cream to brown and the “seams” are almost always visible, where the sections of the hat are connected and seem sewn together;
Gyromitra Fastigiata, in the understanding of some authors (including Weber, 1995), is a different name for the type described here, but Gyromitra Fastigiata is a European name that is interpreted differently. The older, North American name for this species Gyromitra Brunnea;
The height of the hat is 3-9 cm, the width is 5-10 cm, the shape is different, but usually has 2-5 shares, raised and pressed to each other in the shape of a saddle, from brown to pinkish or reddish-brown, slightly wrinkled, shares are usually connected lines similar to the seams, bald, the lower surface is open in places, whitish, pubescent, often grown into the stem in places of contact;
The pulp is whitish or with a pink blush, fragile, chamber, usually thick in the stem;
A leg 2-9 cm long, 2-5 cm thick, irregular in shape, but usually somewhat expanding to the base, from pale-pale-sized-groomed to purely white color, usually not round in section, bald, often ribbed at the base, sometimes decomposes from brown to grayish during processing;
Spreading. It is found under deciduous rocks (often near stumps and fallen trees) in the spring, widespread in the middle West and in the eastern states.
Uncertain line (lat. Gyromitra ambigua)
Hat. The mushroom has a saddler to a 2-lobed or unevenly lobed hat from red-brown to a dark red-brown color, most often with a purple tint, with a edge, bent down along one horizontal axis and up a horizontal axis at a right angle, and as fused. with oneself (for the formation of a saddle), and fused with a leg;
White pulp to cream or light red brown pubescent lower side;
The leg is pale-sized-cream to purple-brown, pubescent leg, often with a violet tint, a round leg in a cross section or corrugated one in the base;
Spreading. Grows under coniferous trees (especially pine) or on coniferous wood;
Disputes are somewhat spindleshaped with two drops and distinct or fuzzy apikules;
Important! Types Gyromitra can be very poisonous when consumed in raw form, although toxicity depends on a particular person, and some people who ate Gyromitra mushrooms without consequences had severe reactions with repeated use. In the 1967 report on 513 cases of such poisoning of 14% of cases were fatal.
Thyroid dyscin. Gyromitra Parma)
Hat. Fruit bodies are discoid, with a diameter of 5 10 cm, almost sessile or with a small leg. Himenopher is located on the upper surface of the fetal body. The lower surface is sterile, matte, whitish;
The stem is 20–60×8–25 mm, simple or fused, cylindrical or thickened upward, turning into colorful and also ribbed, almost pubescent, white, brown, compacted inside or sides from the cavity;
The pulp is watery, alapled, without smell and taste;
The spore powder is lightly christy. Cylindrical ascas, 8 spores. Disputes 26-30×11-13.5 μm, ellipseal shape, with a mesh-bearded surface, with several finger appendages at the ends, about 2 μm long.
Leg 1 cm high, 0.5 cm in diameter, sinewy, light;
The pulp is thin, brittle, grayish, without a pronounced smell;
Important! A poisonous mushroom containing girometrin;
Wednesday and distribution. Grows in deciduous forests, in wet areas, on stumps and trunks of trees of deciduous rocks, is rare.
Belo-yellow line (lat. Gyromitra leucoxantha)
Hat. Fruit bodies with a diameter of 3-7 (15) cm, discidate, widely open, shapow-shaped, irregular convex, wrinkled, folded, tubercular, almost sessile or with a short leg, fleshy-visual. Himenopher is located on the upper surface of the fetal body. The lower surface is sterile, matte, white, whitish, whitish-yellowish;
Himenoforin is smooth, wrinkled, ocher-yellow, ocher-orange, bright orange, brown-orange;
Leg 1 3 cm long, 0.5 cm in diameter, sinewy, light;
The spore powder is lightly christy. Disputes 30-40×12-15 microns, ellipseal shape, unicellular, with a warty-sulfate surface, with a 1st large drop of oil, with colorless additives at the ends;
The pulp is thin, broken, waxy, grayish, without a pronounced smell and taste;
Wednesday and distribution. Grows from April to late May, in deciduous and mixed forests, with birch, on the basis.
Roundtherope line (lat. Gyromitra Sphaerospora)
Hat. The fruit body with a diameter of up to 15 cm consists of a hat, on the upper surface of which there is a hymenal layer and legs. A cap with a diameter of up to 10 cm, up to 8 cm high, incorrectly or angular, flat-poured, asymmetric, pressed in the center, with an age lobe, with a free even or turned inside, hollow. The upper surface is very wrinkled, brain-shaped, light brown-brown, red-brown or dark brown. The lower surface is ribbed, cream or pinkish-gray, fine-grained;
A leg 3-5 cm high, 1.5 cm with a diameter of 1.5 cm, hollow, vertical-abrupt, narrowed at the base, white or grayish, sometimes with a reddish or purple tint. With age, often the leg is destroyed, while the hat looks open;
Spore powder is light brown. Disputes with a diameter of 8-15 microns, almost rounded, without drops of oil;
The pulp is thin, brittle, whitish;
Wednesday and distribution. It grows from April to early June, in deciduous and coniferous forests, on wet areas, on soil, on the remains of dilapidated wood, alone or several pieces, rarely. Rare view.
Where they grow
They are mainly found at a height in coniferous forests, occasionally they can be found in lowlands. The mushroom is fruit in a singlelegged or in groups on the ground under trees of deciduous rocks, in a rich humus. Ordinary habitats near stumps and other dead wood, especially oak. In the southern regions, it may appear in March, but in other places it usually fruit in April and May. This type is used as an indicator signaling the beginning of the “season of Smorch”.
The type of Gyromitra mushrooms grows throughout the North Hemisphere, including North America, Europe and Asia. It is usually found in coniferous and deciduous forests. Fruit mainly in early spring (later at high altitudes), often where snow has recently melted. Gyromitra is an ASCOMYCETES mushroom class, which means that it does not have records, tubes or cloves, and disputes develop in burlap structures called Aski.
The hat is 5-9 cm high, 5-11 cm wide, hemispherical, brain-shaped, imperceptibly lobed; The fertile surface rolled to wrinkled, the blades are separated by deep furrows; Color: tanned brown, ocher brown, dark red brown; sterile lower surface of the hat from cream to brownish color; the edge is attached to the spine in several places; The context is thin, fragile; The smell and taste are not characteristic.
The stem is 3-6 cm long, 1-3 cm thick, hollow, round to compressed, sometimes furrier or with basal folds; The surface is smooth to fluffy, whitish, often painted in purple-beaked color.
Disputes 18-23 x 9-12 microns, ellipsoid, smooth, with two drops of oil; in the sediment, the disputes are pale yellow-brown.
When the lines appear
Different types of lines appear at different times of the year. The season begins from early spring to midsummer. The autumn line appears in late summer and early autumn.
As follows from the general name (false grip), they are really similar to a real grip (lat. Morchella Elata). This mushroom has deeper pits and a longer leg. The main difference is manifested when both mushrooms are cut in half. The false Smore has a number of hollow chambers, while a real grip has one hollow space that extends from the hat to the leg.
Which are edible and which
The line is ordinary. Gyromitra Esculenta is the closest analogue and the most dangerous, as it contains a high level of toxins. It can be distinguished by a convincing reddish-brown hat that has the shape of the brain (horizontal oval), and by the fact that its stem is not massive compared to the hat. In addition, fruit on sandy soils under coniferous trees.
The line is ordinary
Autumn line. Gyromitra Infula appears in late summer and autumn, and not in the spring, when other types of Gyromitra are found. Its widely lobed hat is usually compressed by two shares, which creates a saddler look. Her color is extremely variable. Dark reddish-brown lids of fruit bodies in adulthood acquire a characteristic saddle shape, and the ends of both saddle lobes stretch into sharp tips, protruding above the level of the fruit. The stalk is white or pale brown, smooth outside, but hollow with some cameras inside. Gyromitra Infula is considered inedible, since it contains a toxic compound of girometrin, which, with metabolism in the body, turns into monomethylhydrazine, a component of some types of rocket fuel. Toxin can be removed by careful culinary treatment.
Giant string. Gyromitra Korfii/Gigas, widely known as a snowball, is also found in the spring under deciduous trees. It has a square light brown hat and a stem with wide ribs or waves. This is a conditionally edible mushroom.
Buffin line. Part of Caroliniana, Gyromitra Brunnea, widely known as a pointed false grip, is extremely variable in appearance, but it can be distinguished from other types of gyromitra by a lobed hat, which is often collected in two or three points, forming a saddle shape. The leg is much smaller than that of other species up to 5 cm in thickness. In the spring it also occurs under deciduous trees, often near the stumps and fallen trees. This is conditionally edible.
Some types of Gyromitra mushrooms are conditionally edible, provided that the preparation and preparation is proper. However, since they belong to the genus Gyromitra, which includes g. Esculenta, which is the cause of many poisoning, some of which lead to death, they remain controversial and are intended only for experienced mushroom pickers.
Genus gyromitra, to put it mildly, ambiguous. He has a poor reputation due to numerous deaths, hospitalization and liver damage caused mainly by improper preparation of g. Esculenta, which contains giromitrin, toxin and carcinogen. When heating or digesting the giromitrin in the body, it is easily hydrolyzed to a toxic compound of monomethylhydrasin (MMG), which acts on the nervous system and is used as fuel in some missile fuels. Symptoms of poisoning appear after 6-12 hours or, in rare cases, after 2 hours and resemble amateur poisoning, which, for example, are contained in the deadly Amanita Phalloloides. However, unlike MMG, Amatoxins are thermal: they are not amenable to changes under the influence of heat, so their toxic effect does not decrease when cooking. Symptoms include “a feeling of bloating, nausea, vomiting, watery or bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, fainting, loss of coordination, and in severe cases, convulsions, to whom death”. However, in the presence of medical care, recovery from MMG poisoning can occur within a few hours.
Despite all this, g. Esculenta and other types of Gyromitra have been eaten for centuries for centuries in Europe for centuries. In the Czech Republic G. Esculenta was sold in the markets until the 1950s, but random poisoning after eating this mushroom in the end put this end to this. Now Czech mushrooms warnings warn that all types of Gyromitra can contain toxins, and therefore recommend boiling them before cooking any dish. In Finland in stores you can buy g. evculenta in both fresh and dried form. In Eurasia G. Esculenta and other types of Gyromitra have always been considered conditionally edible after boiling.
Another complicating factor in relation to edibility is that toxins from the types of gyromitra can accumulate in the body over time. Therefore, even after the first use of mushrooms that were not preboiled, there are no symptoms of poisoning, after reuse, severe cases of poisoning may occur. Add to this different content of toxins in different types and in different habitats, and you will understand why it is so important to boil all Gyromitra mushrooms correctly.
The edibility of gyromitra species is determined by two main aspects:
Different types of Gyromitra have different levels of toxins, and inside each type the level of toxins can vary depending on the local genetic strain;
Proper preparation (for example, boiling, but not drying) decomposes toxins and “detoxifying” mushrooms.
Technically, you can detoxify g. Esculenta, to get rid of MMH (and people do this in many countries), but we do not recommend this insistently, because the level of toxins can vary, and you can never know if you got rid of all toxins.
However, g. Caroliniana, G. Brunnea and G, Korfii/Gigas are safe for eating even without boiling. Michael in. Beyug, Doctor of Philosophy, Member of the Committee on toxicology of the North American Micological Association (NAMA), perfectly studied the issue of edible types of gyromitra. He writes that “g. Caroliniana and G. Brunnea is probably no more dangerous for consumption than species of Morchella, which are also toxic in raw. Moreover, he reports that “in the NAMA database there is also no information about the poisoning of these two types.
Edible Gyromitra mushrooms have a hard texture and are great for grades. Before cooking mushrooms g. Caroliniana (or G. Korfii/Gigas, G. Brunnea, G. montana) should always boil. Chef Alan Bergo notes that g. Korfii and G. Montana can be prepared without boiling, but “cooking” should be careful and prolonged. Therefore, just in case, boil them for 15-20 minutes anyway.
Masses are not cultivated in artificially created conditions, t.to. The mushroom does not carry culinary or therapeutic value. However, gourmets can grow it at home. To do this, you need to purchase highquality mycelium and follow the instructions:
Around the tree on an area of 2.5-3 m2, create holes as under the planting of potatoes, a depth of 0.5-2 bayonet of a shovel (until you see the roots). The number of holes 5-7 over the entire area in any order;
Gradually sowing mycelium along the bottom of the holes;
Fall asleep, tamping a little, earth from holes. If possible, mix this earth with humus or forest soil 50/50. If not, nothing terrible, overgrowing and without it will be done well;
Pour each hole from 1 to 2 liters of water. This must be done so that the earth is better settled. The denser the soil will fit the overgrown disputes of the grains and press them against the roots of plants, the faster the overgrowth will turn out;
The next day, it is shallow to loosen the soil, you can with ordinary rakes;
The first crop will appear in 2-6 months, sometimes in the second year. The following yields will be 1-3 times a year.
Until recently, an ordinary line was considered a very tasty and edible look of mushrooms. Unfortunately, in connection with the frequent poisoning, the sale of dried spices from this mushroom was prohibited;
Recently, thanks to the positive qualities and chemical compounds, the lines are used to increase appetite, relieve pain, treatment of neuralgia and improve digestion;
Lines can be confused with edible grogs;
Other names of this species are women ears, and in English-speaking countries it is called mushroom mosy;
It belongs to several types of poisonous mushrooms that cause the greatest number of poisoning in Europe;
The sale of this species is prohibited in many countries of the world;
It is strictly forbidden to include lines in the diet of people with pulmonary and heart failure;
In folk medicine, this mushroom is used for tinctures from gout, for neuralgia, myosites, pancreatic diseases and vision of the organs of vision;
In lines, toxins can accumulate depending on the temperature of the surrounding air and warming up the soil. The autumn species is dangerous precisely because it matures in the hottest season. It is believed that it accumulates many times more poison than an ordinary line.
Currently, in every mushroom directory, a high toxicity sign is indicated next to the photo of this species. In fruit bodies there is a toxin of girometrin, consisting of numerous compounds, in t.h. Monomethylhydrazine and hevellar acid causing severe poisoning. This toxin irritates the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, causes hemolysis and formation of metghemoglobin, damages the liver and kidneys, and also acts on the central nervous system, causing impaired coordination and consciousness, as well as cramps.
Giromitrin is almost completely disappeared when drying or cooking mushrooms. However, poisoning can be caused by inhalation, because the toxin is absorbed by the respiratory system as quickly as through the digestive system.