Melons are called a special type of fruit crops that are grown under certain conditions. Usually these are plants from the pumpkin family, which are consumed fresh. Melonian crops contain a large amount of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus and potassium. In addition, these vegetables are rich in vitamin C, which makes their eating very useful. These plants originated in the hot tropical climate of Asia and Africa. But, using modern methods of selection, they were able to make resistant to more severe climatic conditions. Thus, melons appeared in Eurasia, where they are extensive distribution. Now these fruits and vegetables are grown everywhere due to high demand in the warm season. The name itself «Bachcha» came from the Persian word, which is literally translated as «garden».
General information and description of melons
Bach crops prefer warm climate and abundance of sunlight. The soil can be pretty sandy, but blacksements are also well suited for growing these plants. Plants tolerate drought or small watering well, but rapid growth can only be achieved by regular and abundant watering. Low temperatures are destructive for melting plants, so when landing, it should be borne in mind that spring frosts can completely destroy all crops.
Part of the melon cultures is to feed cattle. Thanks to a large number of useful trace elements, these plants prevent many diseases among animals and significantly increase their immunity. Some plants are used for medical purposes for the production of drugs. But most species are still used in food directly by man. You can eat melons in fresh form or subject to conservation, which allows you to store plants for a long time.
All melons are annual plants and consist of three components – bark, pulp and seeds. The crust of plants is homogeneous in structure and rigid enough to prevent possible damage to the fruit body. The pulp is an edible part of the fetus with a high moisture content. Seeds can be interspersed into the pulp or located in a certain cavity of the fetus closer to its middle. There are three systems of feeding vessels in the fruits of melons:
- passing through the center of the fetus;
- on his periphery and
- in the middle of the cow pulp.
These systems are interconnected and have an extensive system, which covers the entire fruit body. Usually through the center of the fetus passes from three to five large vessels, which account for the main load. Then they are branched and fully provide the fetus with the necessary nutrients.
Bakhchev structure on the example of watermelon
The characteristic of the melons
All melons are annual plants. This culture is distinguished by long descending shoots and bright yellow flowers. The leaves of these plants have a large size to protect the fruits from drying out. The leaves have a rigid coating that prevents excessive evaporation of moisture in the atmosphere. Melon fruits reach a large size and contain a large amount of moisture. The plants of this culture were one of the first to cultivated by a person. In the conditions of arid climate, the melons were one of the few plants that could grow to significant sizes and have pleasant juicy pulp.
Most melons belongs to vegetables, although there are still debates that they can be ranked to berries. There are several species that are widespread around the world due to their juicy and tasty pulp to the Bakhchev family. The main representatives of the gum vegetables are the following types.
The watermelon is ordinary
Probably, this species is familiar to every person due to its enormous prevalence. Many countries grow this culture in large quantities, supplying watermelons to countries whose climate is not suitable for growing melons.
Various types of melons
These plants have a bright yellow or orange color. Fruits are characterized by very sweet pulp of high density. Unlike watermelon, the melons contain much less moisture, so their pulp is much more nutritious.
The pumpkin is ordinary
This plant reaches large volumes, and weight can be more than a hundred kilograms. Pumpkin go not only to food for people. Often they are used as a feed for livestock. The pumpkin is easy and cheaply growing, so it is often more profitable than corn or wheat. In addition, such food is much more useful.
This plant is rightfully considered one of the most delicious representatives of the type of melon. The pulp of nutmeg pumps is characterized by bright orange, which contrasts sharply with a green peel. The pulp of fruits of nutmeg pumps has a large number of beneficial trace elements and is often used by people during a diet.
Zucchini of different types
Zucchini do not have pronounced sweetness, but are a rather popular food product in many countries of the world. They are used for frying and conservation. In some cases, they are also used for livestock feed. But their main purpose in traditional cooking.
The plant is very similar to ordinary zucchini in terms of growth and development. These two species are often sown nearby for crosspollination. Patisson has a very sweet pulp, to taste reminiscent of a white mushroom. There are several types of artificially bred Patissons that are grown in large quantities.
The cucumber also belongs to the pumpkin family and is a close relative of melon. It does not have sweetness at all and almost completely consists of water. However, thanks to simplicity in growing and high yield, cucumber is one of the most popular vegetables in the world.
These are the main types of melons that are found everywhere. There are several exotic types of melons and watermelons, which are grown in special conditions and require specialized care, but inherently, these are ordinary melons that have undergone prolonged selection.
The sowing of the Bakhchevs
Bakhchev sowing should be approached with maximum responsibility. Despite the fact that melons are not demanding of the quality of the soil, in some cases, plants may simply not rise. Sand soil, rocky and any black soil is suitable for planting. In clay soil, plants will grow very badly. Before planting, you need to test the acidity of the soil. High acidity soil is not suitable for this type of plant and it will not work to harvest a large harvest. In addition, good aeration of the soil is necessary, so sowing melons in ravines or lowlands will be wrong. Melons grow quite well in soil with increased salinity. However, excessive salt content will also affect the quality and quantity of the crop.
The optimum temperature for the growth and development of melons is 35-40 C. If the temperature drops below 15 C mark, the plant will stop its growth and die. A large amount of sunlight plays an important role, in rainy regions with great cloudiness, melons will not be able to achieve normal size and sweets. Thanks to the developed root system, melons do not need abundant watering. Roots can absorb moisture even from relatively dry soil. But the necessary irrigation should be regularly carried out if the signs of strong soil drying are visible. Increased watering will lead to a slowdown in the development of the root system and a decrease in the quality of the fruit.
Another important factor is the removal of weeds from the field. Melon plants do not like competition and react poorly to any neighborhood. But weeds need to be removed with extreme caution. Melons are very sensitive to damage to the root system and may die if damaged is accidentally obtained.
Where they grow melons
As mentioned above, the melons are not very sensitive to the type of soil. Therefore, most regions of Eurasia are suitable for their cultivation. These plants do not tolerate the lack of light and high humidity, therefore, the northern regions that have access to the sea are not suitable for their growth. Territories located on the border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China are perfect. The central regions of Eurasia also allow you to get high yields. There are quite a lot of light in these places, and frequent warm winds create the necessary aeration, which positively affects the growth of melon. Therefore, melons can be grown in most territories of Eurasia and receive high yields.
The change of melons begin to germinate at a temperature of +16°C. However, for the full ripening of plants, a temperature of at least +30 is required°C. If the temperature is at the mark of +10 for a long time°C and below, the plant will completely stop its growth and die. However, shortterm temperatures of Bakhchev are not terrible. And if the weather is badly deteriorated for a couple of days, this will not lead to significant problems.
You need to understand that the long influence of low temperatures can lead to the development of diseases that melons are subject to cultures. In the event of a disease, the plants will die, even if good weather returns. Bakhchevy quite steadfastly tolerate low temperatures at the initial stage of development, but to form the ovaries a temperature of at least +19 is required°C. After the appearance of the ovary, this value should not fall below for a long time, otherwise the plant simply will not be able to gain maximum mass.
Moisture should enter the soil evenly. Excessive changes in humidity lead to a sharp decrease in the quality of the fruit. Plants begin to rot, empty cavities form in them, and the pulp becomes too fibrous. Therefore, during the period of drought, water must be served in small portions, but try to do it more often. Using this method, it will be possible to achieve maximum quality of the fruits.
During the start of flowering and ovaries of the fruits of the plant, you can feed with mineral fertilizers containing all elements useful for plants. Such top dressing is carried out by spraying plants from a spray gun. During flowering and formation of fruits, melons are in the most vulnerable state and are subject to various diseases, so top dressing is carried out at this time.
Storage of melons
The average shelf life of the melons is 1.5-2 months. In such conditions, melons can be stored in ordinary basements or granaries. However, if it is necessary to increase this period by a month, resort to special vegetable stores. There, baches are stored on special racks with perfectly selected humidity and temperature. It is not enough just to put the fruits on a bare rack and expect an acceptable result. Melons should be stored on a special litter, which significantly increases the shelf life. Sprinking, straw, cotton wool and even ordinary sand are well suited for litter. This insulating material reduces pressure on the lower part of the fetus and helps to maintain a holistic structure of the vegetable longer.
Under such conditions, melons can be stored for up to three months, but the percentage of spoiled vegetables reaches 60-70%. Therefore, the optimal shelf life is two months. Over this time, the fetus retains most of the beneficial trace elements and remains relatively fresh.
The greatest threat to melons are fungal diseases. The risk of infection of plants increases with negative weather conditions or a large number of moisture. The most common diseases of melons are the following:
- Powdery mildew;
With a strong lesion of melons, about half of the total crop is washed with such fungi. In order to avoid such a situation, it is necessary to feed the plants. Top dressing will significantly increase the resistance of the plant to various diseases and will allow you to more steadfastly tolerate the inappropriate natural conditions.
Another effective method is the alternation of crops through various intervals. With constant landing of a certain culture, a large number of pathogens of the disease accumulate in the soil and the chance of a hazardous outbreak of a dangerous disease increases many times. But other crops may be immune to this type of disease and pathogens, they will simply die.
There are several types of insects and their larvae that can seriously harm the crops of melons. The root system of young plants most often suffers, but some can harm the fruits themselves. Of the pests, it is worth highlighting several common species that can be encountered when planting plants.
For plants, not only the larvae of this beetle are dangerous, but also adults. Cows rush in the fruits of large holes that can no longer overgrow. After that, the vegetable begins to rot and stop this process is not possible.
The largest danger to the melons is the larvae of this beetle, which move in the upper layer of soil and damage the root system of the plant. Generations of beetles are often replaced, so these insects quickly produce immunity to various poisons.
The main harm to plants is caused by the larvae of these insects that suck juice from the leaves and shoots of the plant. In addition, white winged larvae can transfer viruses that pose a serious danger to plants.
Most other types of pests are quite rare and do not cause significant harm to sowing. To combat these insects, it is difficult to use most existing poisons. Immunity has long developed for most pesticides, while others have the ability to accumulate in the fruits of the plant, making it unsuitable for food.
An effective way to combat insects is regular soil digging up in order to destroy most of the eggs of eggs. Once in the ground, larvae cannot reach the roots of the plant and die. In addition, when loosening the earth, some of the eggs are trivially destroyed.