The surface of our planet is not monolithic, it consists of solid blocks, which are called slabs. All changes in the endogenous nature earthquakes, eruptions of volcanoes, lowering and raising individual sections of land occur due to tectonics the movement of lithospheric plates.
The first to put forward the theory of drifting individual sections of land relative to each other Alfred Vegrander in 1930 of the last century. He argued that thanks to the constant interaction of dense pieces of lithosphere, continents on Earth were formed. Science received confirmation of his words only in 1960, after the study of the oceanic bottom, where such changes in the surface of the planet were recorded by oceanologists and geologists.
At the moment of time, the surface of the planet is divided into 8 large lithospheric plates and one and a half dozen smaller blocks. Когда большие участки литосферы расходятся в разные стороны, в трещину вырывается содержимое мантии планеты, остывает, формируя дно Мирового океана, и продолжая раздвигать материковые блоки.
If the slabs are approaching each other, global cataclysms occur, accompanied by immersion of part of the lower block into the mantle. Most often, the lower one turns out to be an oceanic slab, whose contents are melted under the influence of high temperatures, becoming part of the mantle. At the same time, light particles of substances go to the vents of volcanoes, heavy settles, dropping to the bottom of the planet’s fiery robe, drawing up to its core.
In the collision of continental plates, mountain complexes are formed. You can see such a phenomenon with your own eyes when large pieces of frozen water crawl into each other, crumbling and breaking. So almost all mountains, for example, Himalayas and Alps, Pamir and Andes, formed on the planet.
Modern science calculated the approximate speed of the continents of the continents relative to each other:
Ocean lithospheric plates move the faster, ahead of continental 7 times.
Thanks to the research of scientists, the forecast of the future movement of lithospheric plates arose, according to which the Mediterranean Sea will disappear, the Bay of Biscay is eliminated, and Australia will become part of the Eurasian continent.