Mushroom nutrition description and features, methods of nutrition of mushrooms with examples

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Mushrooms are a separate kingdom of wildlife. Their interesting feature is that they combine the signs of plants and animals. That is why the nutrition of mushrooms is considered a complex process, while also quite significant for the environment.

Mushroom power: key features

There are certain features of mushroom nutrition. They themselves are heterotrophs. This is what distinguishes them from other representatives of the plant world. Their diet is very diverse. Mushrooms have 2 power sources at once:

  • organic substances (get from other animals or dead creatures);
  • Mineral elements (mined from moisture).
  • It is worth noting that mushrooms play an important role in the processing of dead plants, since they are able to destroy the pulp shell. Rotting roots, forest litter, animal corpses, plant residues will be good food for mushrooms.

    Forest mushrooms use small pieces of food. Too big portions they are not able to process. One of the characteristic features is the external digestive system. The body of the fungus emits an enzyme that breaks down complex organic matter. Hydrolysis also promotes this process.

    It is interesting to note that for the fungus carbon is not only a source of energy, but also a significant part of the structure of the cells. Approximately half of the sugar that is processed is part of the structure of organisms that eat with the help of the whole body. The environment contains a large number of different compounds and substances. The mushroom sucks, absorbs and processes them. As a result of active activity, humus appears (fertile layer of earth).

    Mushroom nutrition methods

    It should be noted right away that the methods of nutrition in different types of mushrooms may differ. Mostly there are such as:

  • mixed (combination of saprophytic type and parasitic);
  • the use of decaying organic substances;
  • symbiosis with algae and higher plants;
  • parasitism on stumps, plants and other living organisms;
  • plexus with roots of higher plants.
  • For normal life, the fruit body requires carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Proteins are formed in amino acid cells coming in heterotrophs from the environment. Fats are present in the cell walls. They are used as an energy reserve with a lack of carbohydrates. Complex organic substances are obtained from glucose. It is worth noting that in plants from simple carbohydrates, complex starch and fiber are formed

    Thus, so that the fruit body receives all the necessary substances from the environment, it must first turn complex compounds into simple. That is, starch, peptide or fiber cannot get into the cell. For this, organisms throw enzymes into the environment.

    Complex multicellular fruit bodies form enzymes in mycelia.  All varieties have individual characteristic features. For example, some distinguish complex compounds that can dissolve a large volume of substances, while others have only specific, exclusively keratin.

    Food is absorbed with the help of a gifa passing through them.  They are threads of which the body of multicellular mushrooms consists. In the gifs, proteins are transformed, glucose into glycogen, simple lipids into complex fats. Please note that these threads on the substrate are fixed.

    Saprotrophic type of power

    Its peculiarity is the processing of dead organisms. Saprophyta mushrooms are fixed on the object, highlighting complex compounds, and absorbing the decay product of another organism. Since this process helps to dispose of a large number of enzymes, the cycle of energy in nature improves.

    Parasical power system

    It is characteristic of mushrooms capable of living on living organisms, weakened trees and stumps. The most famous owners of such a power system are honey agar. Their body is covered with many processes haustors. With their help, the fungus penetrates into the tissues of a living organism, absorbing nutrients from it. It is interesting to note that when the mushroom completely devastates its “prey”, it can live on it for some time by switching to a saprophytic type of diet.

    Symbiotic nutrition

    This is one of the most common food methods. He is characteristic of a substir, fly agaric, a booth, a white guess, and many other mushrooms. Their roots are confused with the root system of trees, and penetrate it. In this way, mushrooms receive nutrients and liquid. However, the trees in this case also benefit. Mushrooms give them a liquid saturated with mineral salts.

    Features and characteristics of fruit bodies

    There are several characteristic features in the nutrition of mushrooms that distinguish their other living organisms:

  • The shell of some types of fruit bodies contain chitin;
  • often accumulated glycogen is used as an additional or spare nutrient element;
  • In the process of exchange, urea is formed;
  • In the body of the fungus there is no chloroplasts and other elements that can participate in photosynthesis;
  • Heterotrophs do not swallow, but absorb food;
  • Mushrooms have a rather pronounced cell wall;
  • Heterotrophs are able to form vitamins and other useful elements;
  • cannot absorb large pieces of food;
  • differ in the external method of nutrition;
  • In the process of eating nutrients, carbon is released.
  • The nutrition of the fruit body is considered a complex process, which is part of the cycle of chemicals in nature. There are no extra elements in this scheme. Even parasitic mushrooms play an important role, having a beneficial effect on the environment.

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