Mushrooms of champignons photo how to grow and calorie content, what the mushroom looks like

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Champignons (lat. Agaricus) the most popular varieties of mushrooms that grow and eat in the world. Meadow mushrooms, also called ordinary white mushrooms, round, smooth and ivory colors. Their dimensions vary from the size of the nail to more than 10 centimeters in diameter. Champignons are the softest of all the mushrooms sold, and it is best to enjoy them in combination with other, more earthen varieties of mushrooms, such as Crini, Portobello and chanterelles.

Champignon is real

Types of champignons

There are many varieties of champignons, among which there are both edible and inedible varieties. The types described below are suitable for use.
Champignon Field (latch. Agaricus arvest)

  • An excellent mushroom with a rich, strong taste, and since it can grow very large and clearings, it usually gives a good harvest;
  • The hat is white, sometimes with a gray/brown tint, it can be scaly or smooth. First spherical, then revealed as flat. With a bruise, it can be slightly yellow;
  • The plates in young specimens of the plate are almost white, but in more mature copies they quickly change the color from pink/gray to brown. On the unsuccessful lids, the ring, while still connected to the lid, looks like a “gear wheel”;>
  • The leg is strong, with a large double ring;
  • The skirt at the beginning can be quite large, but usually damaged or compressed to the ring;
  • The pulp is white, elastic, with a bruise slightly turns yellow. Has an anise smell;
  • The habitat is pastures, meadows, lawns, roadsides and parks, often grows rings;
  • Can be confused with yellowskinned champignon (lat. Agaricus xanthodermus), but this mushroom is painted in a chromium-yellow color with a bruise or cut and smells of Indian ink, hospitals or iodine, not edible;
  • Spore discharge dark-purple/brown color. Spore form ellipsoid. To accurately determine the color of the dispute, they should be scattered into a small heap;
  • Taste and smell. Excellent, this is one of our favorite varieties. The smell of anise is a good way to determine this mushroom. Before use should be prepared.
  • Champignon Field

    Champignon August (lat. Agaricus augustus)

  • Can accumulate cadmium, therefore it is best to collect in the wild in the distance from urban spaces and lively roads;
  • The hat is spherical when young becomes convex. Covered with concentric brown brown scales on a white or pale yellow background. Along the edges can be stained in yellow when touching;
  • The plates start from white to pink, then become dark brown, solid. Not attached to the stem.
  • The stem is white to a pale cream, smooth above the skirt and covered with small brown scales under it;
  • The skirt is large pendulum;
  • The pulp is white, sometimes with a yellow tint in the places of cut or bruise;
  • Hills mixed forests, especially under coniferous trees, lawns and roadsides of roads;
  • You can confuse with Agaricus Moelleri, it looks like a chemical, unpleasant smell of the pulp of this mushroom should alert you;
  • The August champignon is also slightly similar to some species of lepiots, but they always have white gills, and not pale pink or brown gills of the Agarikov family;
  • Disputes-purple/chocolate-brown color. Ellipsoid;
  • The taste and smell is excellent. Mushroom. The pulp smells of a bitter almond. Before use should be prepared.
  • Champignon August

    Doublehaired champignon (latch. Agaricus bitorquis)

  • This mushroom can grow in dry, compacted soil or even on the asphalt, and, it seems, prefers to grow next to paths and roads;
  • The hat is white and convex, revealing to the flat in mature specimens, often covered with dirt and dust;
  • The plates are first white/gray, then become pink or dark brown. Solid. Not connected to the stem;
  • The stem is durable, white, often tapering at the base;
  • The skirt has a bilateral skirt;
  • Flesh fleshy white, slightly pink on the cut;
  • Habitat roadsides of roads, the edges of the paths, under the trees, naked soil, gardens or manure;
  • You can confuse. A similar mushroom of Agaricus Xanthodermus, but this mushroom is painted in a chromium-yellow color with a bruise or cut, smells of Indian ink, hospitals or iodine and inceduced;
  • Taste and smell strong and mushroom. Before use should be prepared;
  • Interesting fact! It seems that this is a favorite mushroom of larvae, and even mushrooms that have just made their way to the surface are usually teeming with them. They are great in taste if you can find them without larvae.
  • The champignon is bicomring

    Champignon Brazilian (lat. Agaricus Blazei)

  • This very tasty champignon in most books is still considered rare, but it seems that over the past couple of years it has become more common in the world. It grows with clusters, therefore it is found in large quantities, but requires thorough cleaning to remove all the grains of sand;
  • Hat. Mushroom with a hard hat and brown triangular scales, distinctly pointed and raised. Hats are often covered with soil, as they quickly break through the ground;
  • The plates of the young Brazilian champignon begin with whitish or pale pink and become brown to dark brown. Are located closely and freely from the stem;
  • Stem. A long leg has a conical pointed base similar to a spindle, and grows from the central point, and the mushrooms in each accumulation are connected at the base of the leg;
  • Skirt. Fat skirt is usually located in the upper part of the stem. It is pale brown, scaly and can look double-haired;
  • The pulp is initially white, but during exposure it quickly becomes red-brown, and then acquires a dark brown color;
  • Habitat grows from the soil, usually under trees in mixed forests and parks;
  • Doubles. Shampignon Moldler (lat. Agaricus moelleri) is the most similar toxic look, but it has the smell of phenol/Indian ink/iodine, which will scare you off, the flesh does not become red, and each mushroom grows separately from the soil, and not from the central point;
  • It is easy to confuse it with Agaricus subperonatus/Cappellianus/vaporarius, which is a good edible product, but in some people causes gastric disorder;
  • Several edible champignons may look like, but an accumulation, raised scales on a hat and deeply rooting stems of Agaricus Bohusii are a good help to identify this fungus. For champignons, the general rule applies: if you are 100% sure that this is a type of champignon, if it does not smell of phenol or acetone and does not stain in bright yellow, which means that it is edible;
  • The taste and smell of mushroom, but the soil should be carefully removed. Before use should be boiled;
  • Frequency. It is considered a rare or at least unusual, but in recent years we have been observing an increase in the number of its appearance, and it is becoming increasingly common. Since it grows with dense clusters, there will be no harm if you collect a couple of pieces for food.
  • Champignon Brazilian

    Ordinary champignon (lat. Agaricus Campestris)

  • Previously, it was a very common mushroom, but it is becoming increasingly difficult to find due to the loss of habitat and chemical sprayers currently used;
  • Hat. White, sometimes with a gray/brown tint, can be scaly or smooth. First spherical, then revealed as flat. Can be slightly pink. The cuticle often hangs down above the edge of the hat and is a good indicator of a field mushroom;
  • The plates of young specimens begin with dark pink and turning into dark brown;
  • The stem is white and smooth above the ring, slightly scaled below, tapering at the base. The ring is tender, and usually you can only find its traces;
  • The skirt is small, insignificant and not very durable;
  • The pulp is white, the place of the bruise is slightly pink;
  • Habitat pastures, meadows, lawns, roadsides of roads and parks;
  • Double Agaricus Xanthodermus, but this mushroom is stained in a chromium-yellow color with a bruise or section and smells of Indian ink, hospitals or iodine. Agaricus pilatianus, which is also stained in yellow and has a similar smell. Both mushrooms do not smell pleasant and inedible;
  • Disputes. The color is chocolate brown. The form is ovoid. To accurately determine the color of the dispute, they should be scattered into a small heap;
  • The taste and smell of mushroom. Before use should be prepared;
  • Frequency. All less often on the fields that are sprayed with chemicals.
  • Shampignon ordinary

    Cool champignon (lat. Agaricus Crocodilin)

  • It is rare, but, being a large mushroom, it is often visible from afar. Unfortunately, larvae are also able to notice this mushroom, and almost all mushrooms are covered with larvae;
  • The hat is convex, flatopened, when ripening it becomes scaly and breaks down at the edges. White with pale yellow or brown blush;
  • The plates are solid, first pink, become brown, then almost black;
  • White stem/cream, covered with phlox. The stem is narrowed towards the lid and base;
  • The skirt is fragile, which can often be washed or cleaned with a brush;
  • The pulp is white and solid, blushing/pink in the stem with a cut;
  • Habitat pastures, lawns and any grassy places. Grows rings or sometimes one by one;
  • Double. Agaricus Xanthodermus, but the pulp of this fungus is stained in a chromium-yellow color with a bruise or section and smells of Indian ink. Agaricus pilatianus, which is also stained in yellow and has a similar smell. Both mushrooms do not smell edible;
  • The taste and smell of mushroom. Before use should be prepared;
  • Interesting! Even in young form, they are always full of larvae.
  • Charpine champignon

    Shampynon Big Forest (Lat. Agaricus Langei)

  • Great mushroom tastes, similar to a reduced version of the largeheaded champignon with the same almond smell and pulp, which blushes and oxidizes stronger than that of largeheaded;
  • The hat is spherical when young becomes convex. Covered with concentric slightly reddish-brown scales on a white or pale yellow background;
  • The plates are first pink and become dark brown. Solid. Not attached to the stem;
  • The stem is white to pale cream with red notes, smooth above the skirt and covered with small brown scales under it;
  • Skirt. One white fleshy ring hanging down, with brown or gray phloxes on the lower side;
  • The pulp is white or oxidizing to pink/red in places of bruises. In old specimens, it can be yellowish at the base of the legs;
  • Habitat. In open mixed forests;
  • Double. Agaricus moelleri looks like, but the chemical, unpleasant smell of the pulp of this mushroom and the fact that its flesh is not painted red, should protect you;
  • Taste and smell strong and mushroom. Smells of almonds;
  • Frequency. Quite frequent phenomenon.
  • The champignon is large forest

    Forest champignon (lat. Agaricus silvaticus)

  • Forest champignon is quite easy to identify by a reddening leg and pulp;
  • The hat is spherical when young becomes convex. Pale brown fibrous lines passing into small scales on a more pale background. Any bruise or damage on the hat almost immediately acquires a striking red color;
  • White plates become gray, red and dark brown;
  • The stem at a young age is white, then it becomes pale brown/gray. May have a bulbous base;
  • The skirt is large, smooth and free;
  • Pulp. A white spot, which is very blushing during a section and eventually fading to brown;
  • The habitat is coniferous forests, but can also occur among deciduous trees;
  • Double. Tricholoma Vaccinum does not have a ring, and the plates are more red/brown. He is also edible;
  • The taste and smell are excellent, mushroom. Before use should be prepared.
  • Forest champignon

    Where they grow

    The field and meadow champignon is found on pastures with a large number of decaying organic substances, such as beveled grass or breaking the grazing animals, for example, in pastures or meadows, parks or gardens.

    The only representative of the edible forest champignon grows only in mixed forests.

    Characteristic

    Agaricus is widespread mushrooms closely associated with the cultivated Agaricus bisporus. It is widely known as a field mushroom or meadow champignon. This mushroom is usually found in the fields or pastures of especially rich in manure and herbaceous areas after the rain, starting from the end of summer. The largest fruits usually appear when warm and wet weather coincides. This is a stocky, medium size, purely white mushroom with bright pink records at a young age, but with age it becomes generally brown with dark chocolate plates. They can appear in small groups, whole rings, or just alone.

    The hat can be somewhat fibrous to scaly, and, as a rule, the cuticle protrudes beyond the edges, like a hanging tablecloth. The ring is usually thin and unstable, and the base of the stigmas is often conical. It is found almost around the world. A cap 5-10 cm wide, convex, in mature copies widely convex; the edge is curved, in aging specimens curved, sometimes upturned; the surface is dry, smooth, in dry weather fibrous or shallowmash Color: from white to ash. The plates are pink, when ripening, they become black in brown.

    The stem is 3-6 cm long, 1-2 cm thick, tapering to a pointed base, full; The skirt is thin, membrane, fragile, either leaves the remains on the edge of a young hat, or forms a median or upper, disappearing ring.

    Disputes 5.5-8.0 x 3.5-5 microns, elliptical, smooth; The color is black in brown.

    The champignon is dense

    When champignons appear

    All mushrooms are very similar in the fact that they love wet, raw and wet conditions. As a rule, they like to appear after a period of heavy rain, during a rather arid period. Some seasons are better than others for mushrooms, and usually a good season is when there was a lot of rain (although not a strong flood). If it was a woman’s summer with long dry periods during the fall, then this does not give a good picture for the mushroom season.

    If the earth is too dry, then even little rain may not be enough to stimulate the growth of mushrooms. Therefore, in the ideal world, or, in other words, the best time to collect mushrooms is after heavy rain. The first specimens appear from midsummer, and the season ends in the middle of autumn.

    Champignon Marking

    How to distinguish edible from inedible

    Here are some general information and tips that should help you avoid the pursuits. The most important things that should be paid to is their smell and whether they are bleached when. Cut the fungal leg, then wait 15 minutes if the cut turns yellow, throw it away. Bring the lower part of the mushroom hat close to the nose and smell it well. It is mushroom and smells good? Excellent. Smells like balming liquid? Badly.

    Use

    Mushrooms are very universal mushrooms that can be eaten in different ways. Fresh mushrooms have a short shelf life 3 4 days. Thus, freezing and drying are only some of the methods used to extend the shelf life of mushrooms without prejudice to their nutrient qualities.

    Mushrooms can be eaten raw, dried or even grilled. If desired, dried mushrooms can also be rejected by soaking them in water. Powder mushrooms are mainly used to increase the nutritional value of products, especially to increase the protein content in bakery products.

    Due to the soft taste and delicate texture, the mushrooms are an excellent addition to a variety of dishes. Both the hat and the stems are edible, they can be eaten in boiled or raw form. Here are a few suggestions on how to add them to your diet:

  • Fry them in olive oil with garlic, rosemary, salt and pepper;
  • Add them to fried meat with other vegetables;
  • Prepare them with eggs or add them as a filling in an omelet for breakfast;
  • Fry them with twigs of rosemary and thyme to get a crispy snack;
  • Fry them along with carrots, onions, garlic and onions and weld in water for the preparation of hearty and healthy mushroom broth.
  • The champignon is yellowskinned

    Growing

    Champignons are mainly cultivated mushrooms. They are grown in special cultivation halls, where optimal conditions for their growth are supported. And mushrooms need the right temperature and access of fresh air. The lack of the latter leads to an increase in the hard legs of the mushroom, and not a durable and most beloved hat. You can also grow mushrooms at home without forgetting to provide the mushrooms with suitable conditions, or you can find wild mushrooms growing in meadows and wastelands, and sometimes they grow in your garden. But remember that before cooking mushrooms, you need to make sure that it is really edible champignons. They should have a white leg and hat, and from below-a pink-beige hat.

    Advice! Collect mushrooms as they ripen. Carefully water the shell several times a week, while fruiting and harvesting continues.

    At home, they mainly grow Agaricus Blazei . This mushroom mainly uses straw agricultural crops, such as wheat straw, corn straw, a shell of cotton seed and so on, as well as sawdust as a carbon resource; Bobic cake, peanutic cake, wheat bran, corn flour, litter of pets and birds, as well as urea, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen resource. According to the results of the study, Agaricus Blazei can use sucrose and glucose, but not soluble starch; can use ammonium sulfate, with an optimal concentration of 0.3%; can also use ammonium nitrate, but not pepton.

    Mycelium can grow at a temperature in a range of 10-37 ° C, a suitable temperature-23-27 ° C. The fruit body can develop at a temperature of 17-33 ° C, a suitable temperature-20-25 ° C.

    The champignon is false

    The optimal water content in the substrate is 55%60% (the ratio of the substrate and water 1: 1.3-1.four). The optimal water content in the soil of the case is 60%-65%, and the humidity in the mushroom mushrooms is 75%-85%. For the growth of mycelium, the light is not needed, and small lighting contributes to the formation of a fruit body.

    Agaricus Blazei is an aerobic fungus, and it needs a lot of fresh air both for the growth of mycelium and for the development of the fruit body. It can grow in the substrate with PH 6-11, and the optimal value is 8.0.

    Calorie content of champignons

    In 100 g. Fresh mushrooms contain 27 kcal, 1 g. Fiber, 3 g. proteins and carbohydrates, 0.3 g. fat, more than 90 g. water, ash, many vitamins of group B (including thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid and cobalamin), a small amount of vitamin D and C, as well as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium (among the minerals there are the largest number 318 mg 318 mg.), iron and zinc. They also contain biologically active substances, such as:

  • Lectins: have an anticancer effect;
  • Ergosterol: under the influence of thermal factors, it is converted into vitamin D2.
  • Interesting Facts

    To this day, the myth of the weak healing properties of champignons is preserved. It is believed that taste is the only value of mushrooms in general, including more rare forest mushrooms. In this regard, the champignon was at the very bottom of the list, since it was believed that the mushroom obtained in conditions of cultivation was completely deprived of health potential.

    Meanwhile, champignons with two disputes are surprisingly useful for humans. They contain more vitamins of group B than many types of vegetables. Thanks to the specifics of growing (they grow on manure), we can even find vitamins B12 and D in them, which (especially the last) so often do not have enough. Doublehaired mushrooms consist of more than 90% of the water, contain few calories and fat. However, they contain fiber in the form of beta-glucans. This makes them useful for blood cholesterol and helps regulate sugar levels. Therefore, they are an ideal addition to hazard dishes and for people who observe a diet for weight loss. In addition, twobottom mushrooms support the operation of the immune system and suppress the reproduction of bacteria and yeast Candida.

    Twobottom mushrooms are useful not only to maintain a slender figure and a good lipid profile. In addition to vitamins and fiber, they also contain antioxidant acids, catechins and routine, as well as anticancer lectins and ergosterol.

    Shampignon Lugovoi

    Anticancer action

    The cytotoxic effect of Agaricus Campestris was evaluated using larynx carcinoma (HEP-2) and breast carcinomas (MCF-7). When the compounds were extracted using a hexane as a solvent, there was a cytotoxic potential indicating its ability to cause the death of cancer cells.

    Antidiabetic

    Early studies of the release of insulin from the islet cells of the pancreatic gland of rats showed that Agaricus Campestris stimulates the release of secrets that regulate the level of glucose in the blood, having opposite effects insulin and glucagon. Insulin and glucagon reduce and increase the level of glucose in the blood, respectively. The introduction of Agaricus Campestris into drinking water and diet in the model of mice suffering from diabetes led to a decrease in induced hyperglycemia. By the 12th day, the levels were very similar to those that were in control mice without diabetes. The dose was 62.5 g/kg of the diet and 2.5 g/l instead of drinking water. The absorption of glucose and metabolism in diabetes are disturbed, and in vitro Agaricus Campestris increased both the absorption of glucose and stimulated the transformation into glycogen (glucogenesis). The results of application only Agaricus Campestris did not differ from the results when lat. Agaricus Campestris was introduced with insulin.

    Also, this mushroom was described as a bioindic of the trace concentrations of silver found in its growth environment; In addition, meadow mushroom may have the potential for use in soil disinfection after exposure to machine oil on the environment.

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