Champignons (lat. Agaricus) the most popular varieties of mushrooms that grow and eat in the world. Meadow mushrooms, also called ordinary white mushrooms, round, smooth and ivory colors. Their dimensions vary from the size of the nail to more than 10 centimeters in diameter. Champignons are the softest of all the mushrooms sold, and it is best to enjoy them in combination with other, more earthen varieties of mushrooms, such as Crini, Portobello and chanterelles.
- Types of champignons
- Champignon August (lat. Agaricus augustus)
- Doublehaired champignon (latch. Agaricus bitorquis)
- Champignon Brazilian (lat. Agaricus Blazei)
- Ordinary champignon (lat. Agaricus Campestris)
- Cool champignon (lat. Agaricus Crocodilin)
- Shampynon Big Forest (Lat. Agaricus Langei)
- Forest champignon (lat. Agaricus silvaticus)
- Where they grow
- When champignons appear
- How to distinguish edible from inedible
- Calorie content of champignons
- Interesting Facts
- Anticancer action
Types of champignons
There are many varieties of champignons, among which there are both edible and inedible varieties. The types described below are suitable for use.
Champignon Field (latch. Agaricus arvest)
Champignon August (lat. Agaricus augustus)
Doublehaired champignon (latch. Agaricus bitorquis)
Champignon Brazilian (lat. Agaricus Blazei)
Ordinary champignon (lat. Agaricus Campestris)
Cool champignon (lat. Agaricus Crocodilin)
Shampynon Big Forest (Lat. Agaricus Langei)
Forest champignon (lat. Agaricus silvaticus)
Where they grow
The field and meadow champignon is found on pastures with a large number of decaying organic substances, such as beveled grass or breaking the grazing animals, for example, in pastures or meadows, parks or gardens.
The only representative of the edible forest champignon grows only in mixed forests.
Agaricus is widespread mushrooms closely associated with the cultivated Agaricus bisporus. It is widely known as a field mushroom or meadow champignon. This mushroom is usually found in the fields or pastures of especially rich in manure and herbaceous areas after the rain, starting from the end of summer. The largest fruits usually appear when warm and wet weather coincides. This is a stocky, medium size, purely white mushroom with bright pink records at a young age, but with age it becomes generally brown with dark chocolate plates. They can appear in small groups, whole rings, or just alone.
The hat can be somewhat fibrous to scaly, and, as a rule, the cuticle protrudes beyond the edges, like a hanging tablecloth. The ring is usually thin and unstable, and the base of the stigmas is often conical. It is found almost around the world. A cap 5-10 cm wide, convex, in mature copies widely convex; the edge is curved, in aging specimens curved, sometimes upturned; the surface is dry, smooth, in dry weather fibrous or shallowmash Color: from white to ash. The plates are pink, when ripening, they become black in brown.
The stem is 3-6 cm long, 1-2 cm thick, tapering to a pointed base, full; The skirt is thin, membrane, fragile, either leaves the remains on the edge of a young hat, or forms a median or upper, disappearing ring.
Disputes 5.5-8.0 x 3.5-5 microns, elliptical, smooth; The color is black in brown.
When champignons appear
All mushrooms are very similar in the fact that they love wet, raw and wet conditions. As a rule, they like to appear after a period of heavy rain, during a rather arid period. Some seasons are better than others for mushrooms, and usually a good season is when there was a lot of rain (although not a strong flood). If it was a woman’s summer with long dry periods during the fall, then this does not give a good picture for the mushroom season.
If the earth is too dry, then even little rain may not be enough to stimulate the growth of mushrooms. Therefore, in the ideal world, or, in other words, the best time to collect mushrooms is after heavy rain. The first specimens appear from midsummer, and the season ends in the middle of autumn.
How to distinguish edible from inedible
Here are some general information and tips that should help you avoid the pursuits. The most important things that should be paid to is their smell and whether they are bleached when. Cut the fungal leg, then wait 15 minutes if the cut turns yellow, throw it away. Bring the lower part of the mushroom hat close to the nose and smell it well. It is mushroom and smells good? Excellent. Smells like balming liquid? Badly.
Mushrooms are very universal mushrooms that can be eaten in different ways. Fresh mushrooms have a short shelf life 3 4 days. Thus, freezing and drying are only some of the methods used to extend the shelf life of mushrooms without prejudice to their nutrient qualities.
Mushrooms can be eaten raw, dried or even grilled. If desired, dried mushrooms can also be rejected by soaking them in water. Powder mushrooms are mainly used to increase the nutritional value of products, especially to increase the protein content in bakery products.
Due to the soft taste and delicate texture, the mushrooms are an excellent addition to a variety of dishes. Both the hat and the stems are edible, they can be eaten in boiled or raw form. Here are a few suggestions on how to add them to your diet:
Champignons are mainly cultivated mushrooms. They are grown in special cultivation halls, where optimal conditions for their growth are supported. And mushrooms need the right temperature and access of fresh air. The lack of the latter leads to an increase in the hard legs of the mushroom, and not a durable and most beloved hat. You can also grow mushrooms at home without forgetting to provide the mushrooms with suitable conditions, or you can find wild mushrooms growing in meadows and wastelands, and sometimes they grow in your garden. But remember that before cooking mushrooms, you need to make sure that it is really edible champignons. They should have a white leg and hat, and from below-a pink-beige hat.
Advice! Collect mushrooms as they ripen. Carefully water the shell several times a week, while fruiting and harvesting continues.
At home, they mainly grow Agaricus Blazei . This mushroom mainly uses straw agricultural crops, such as wheat straw, corn straw, a shell of cotton seed and so on, as well as sawdust as a carbon resource; Bobic cake, peanutic cake, wheat bran, corn flour, litter of pets and birds, as well as urea, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen resource. According to the results of the study, Agaricus Blazei can use sucrose and glucose, but not soluble starch; can use ammonium sulfate, with an optimal concentration of 0.3%; can also use ammonium nitrate, but not pepton.
Mycelium can grow at a temperature in a range of 10-37 ° C, a suitable temperature-23-27 ° C. The fruit body can develop at a temperature of 17-33 ° C, a suitable temperature-20-25 ° C.
The optimal water content in the substrate is 55%60% (the ratio of the substrate and water 1: 1.3-1.four). The optimal water content in the soil of the case is 60%-65%, and the humidity in the mushroom mushrooms is 75%-85%. For the growth of mycelium, the light is not needed, and small lighting contributes to the formation of a fruit body.
Agaricus Blazei is an aerobic fungus, and it needs a lot of fresh air both for the growth of mycelium and for the development of the fruit body. It can grow in the substrate with PH 6-11, and the optimal value is 8.0.
Calorie content of champignons
In 100 g. Fresh mushrooms contain 27 kcal, 1 g. Fiber, 3 g. proteins and carbohydrates, 0.3 g. fat, more than 90 g. water, ash, many vitamins of group B (including thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid and cobalamin), a small amount of vitamin D and C, as well as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium (among the minerals there are the largest number 318 mg 318 mg.), iron and zinc. They also contain biologically active substances, such as:
To this day, the myth of the weak healing properties of champignons is preserved. It is believed that taste is the only value of mushrooms in general, including more rare forest mushrooms. In this regard, the champignon was at the very bottom of the list, since it was believed that the mushroom obtained in conditions of cultivation was completely deprived of health potential.
Meanwhile, champignons with two disputes are surprisingly useful for humans. They contain more vitamins of group B than many types of vegetables. Thanks to the specifics of growing (they grow on manure), we can even find vitamins B12 and D in them, which (especially the last) so often do not have enough. Doublehaired mushrooms consist of more than 90% of the water, contain few calories and fat. However, they contain fiber in the form of beta-glucans. This makes them useful for blood cholesterol and helps regulate sugar levels. Therefore, they are an ideal addition to hazard dishes and for people who observe a diet for weight loss. In addition, twobottom mushrooms support the operation of the immune system and suppress the reproduction of bacteria and yeast Candida.
Twobottom mushrooms are useful not only to maintain a slender figure and a good lipid profile. In addition to vitamins and fiber, they also contain antioxidant acids, catechins and routine, as well as anticancer lectins and ergosterol.
The cytotoxic effect of Agaricus Campestris was evaluated using larynx carcinoma (HEP-2) and breast carcinomas (MCF-7). When the compounds were extracted using a hexane as a solvent, there was a cytotoxic potential indicating its ability to cause the death of cancer cells.
Early studies of the release of insulin from the islet cells of the pancreatic gland of rats showed that Agaricus Campestris stimulates the release of secrets that regulate the level of glucose in the blood, having opposite effects insulin and glucagon. Insulin and glucagon reduce and increase the level of glucose in the blood, respectively. The introduction of Agaricus Campestris into drinking water and diet in the model of mice suffering from diabetes led to a decrease in induced hyperglycemia. By the 12th day, the levels were very similar to those that were in control mice without diabetes. The dose was 62.5 g/kg of the diet and 2.5 g/l instead of drinking water. The absorption of glucose and metabolism in diabetes are disturbed, and in vitro Agaricus Campestris increased both the absorption of glucose and stimulated the transformation into glycogen (glucogenesis). The results of application only Agaricus Campestris did not differ from the results when lat. Agaricus Campestris was introduced with insulin.
Also, this mushroom was described as a bioindic of the trace concentrations of silver found in its growth environment; In addition, meadow mushroom may have the potential for use in soil disinfection after exposure to machine oil on the environment.