India is an Asian country that occupies most of the Hindustan peninsula, as well as a number of islands in the Indian Ocean. This picturesque region is richly endowed with various natural resources, including fertile soil, forests, minerals and water. These resources are distributed unevenly over a vast area. We will look at them in more detail below.
India can be proud of the abundance of fertile land. In the alluvial soil of the northern great plains of the Satle Ganga and Brahmaputra valleys, rice, corn, sugar cane, jute, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, sesame, flax, etc. d.
Cotton and sugar cane are grown in the black soil of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarati.
India is quite rich in such minerals as:
Coal mining in India began in 1774 after the East India Company in the Raniganj coalfield along the west bank of the Damadar River in the Indian state of West Bengal. The growth of Indian coal mining began when steam locomotives were introduced in 1853. Production increased to one million tons. Production reached 30 million tons in 1946. After independence, the National Coal Development Corporation was created, and the mines became co-owners of the railways. India consumes coal mainly for the energy sector.
As of April 2014, India had about 5.62 billion proven oil reserves, thus establishing itself as the second largest in the Asia-Pacific region after China. Most of the oil reserves in India are located on the western coast (in Mumbai Hi) and in the north-eastern part of the country, although significant reserves are also in the offshore bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan. The combination of growing oil consumption and a rather unshakable production level leaves India largely dependent on imports to satisfy its needs.
According to the government, India has 1437 billion m3 of confirmed natural gas reserves as of April 2010. The bulk of the obtained natural gas in India comes from the Western offshore regions, in particular the Mumbai complex. Sea deposits in:
A number of organizations, such as the geological service of India, the Indian Bureau of Mine, etc. D., are engaged in the intelligence and development of mineral resources in India.
Due to the variety of reliefs and climate, India is rich in flora and fauna. There are a number of national parks and hundreds of wildlife sanctuaries.
Forests are called “green gold”. These are renewable resources. They ensure the quality of the environment: they absorb CO2, the poisons of urbanization and industrialization, they regulate the climate, because they act like a natural “sponge”.
The woodworking industry makes a significant contribution to the country’s economy. Unfortunately, industrialization has a detrimental effect on the number of forest zones, reducing them at a catastrophic rate. In this regard, the Government of India has passed a number of laws to protect forest areas.
Forest Research Institute was established in Dehradun to study the field of forestry development. They developed and implemented an afforestation system that includes:
In terms of freshwater resources, India is one of the ten most prosperous countries, since 4% of the world’s fresh water reserves are concentrated on its territory. Despite this, according to the report of the Intergovernmental Working Group on Climate Change, India is designated as an area prone to water depletion. Today, fresh water consumption is 1122 m3 per capita, while according to international standards this figure should be 1700 m3. Analysts predict that in the future, at the current rate of use, India may experience even greater shortage of fresh water.
Topographical restrictions, distribution patterns, technical limitations and poor management prevent India from using its water resources efficiently.