Nature of the Tundra of Eurasia | Arctic tundra | Middle tundra | southern tundra

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To the south of the Arctic desert zone there is a beautiful harsh zone without forest, long summer and heat tundra. The nature of this climate is very beautiful and most often snow-white. Winter cold can reach50⁰С. Winter in the tundra lasts about 8 months, there is also a polar night. The nature of the tundra is diverse, each plant and animal has adapted to the cold climate and frost.

Interesting facts about the nature of the tundra

  1. During the short summer, the surface of the tundra warms up on average half a meter deep.
  2. There are many swamps and lakes in the tundra, because due to constant low temperatures, water from the surface slowly evaporates.
  3. In the plant world of the tundra, a large variety of moss. A lot of reindeer moss will melt here, it is a favorite food for reindeer in cold winters.
  4. Due to severe frosts, there are few trees in this climate, most often tundra plants are stunted, since the cold wind is less felt near the ground.
  5. In summer, many swans, cranes and geese fly to the tundra. They try to quickly acquire offspring in order to have time to raise chicks before the onset of winter.
  6. The tundra is being explored for minerals, oil and gas. Technique and transport for work violate the soil, which leads to the death of plants that are important for the life of animals.

The main types of tundra

Tundra is usually divided into three zones:

  1. Arctic tundra.
  2. Middle tundra.
  3. South tundra.

Arctic tundra

The Arctic tundra is characterized by very harsh winters and cold winds. Summer is cool and cold. Despite this, the tundra live in the Arctic climate:

  • seals;
  • walrus;
  • seals;
  • White bears;
  • sheeps;
  • Northern deer;
  • wolves;
  • foxes;
  • hares.
  • Most of this region is behind the polar circle. A characteristic feature of this region is that high trees do not grow in it. In the summer of snow, small swamps are partially melted and formed.

    Middle tundra

    The average or typical tundra is richly dotted with mosses. A lot of sedge grows in this climate, northern deer loves it in winter. Since the weather is milder in the middle tundra than in the arctic tundra, dwarf birches and willows appear in it. Mosses, lichens and small shrubs are also found in the middle tundra. Many rodents live here, owls and arctic foxes feed on them. Because of the swamps in a typical tundra, there are a lot of midges and mosquitoes. For humans, this area is used for breeding. Too cold summers and winters do not allow any farming here.

    southern tundra

    The southern tundra is often called “forest”, because it is located on the border with the forest zone. This area is much warmer than other areas. In the hottest month of summer, the weather reaches +12⁰С for several weeks. In the southern tundra, individual trees or forests of low spruce or birch trees grow. The advantage of the forest tundra for humans is that it is already possible to grow vegetables in it, such as potatoes, cabbage, radishes and green onions. Yagel and other favorite plants of deer grow here much faster than in other areas of the tundra, therefore, reindeer prefer southern territories.

    Other related articles:

    Animals of the Tundra from the Red Book

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