13 to 15 years old
History of the breed
The Nenets Laika or Reindeer Spitz is a primitive breed of aboriginal dogs. This means that it retained the maximum number of features from primitive ancestors. The breed was formed during the last ice age in the European tundra. And after it ended, it spread further across Eurasia.
Nenets Laikas have found their use as shepherds and hunters. Can be used to search for people after disasters, serve in the ranks of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The famous Sheremetyevo Airport in the Russian capital is guarded by Nenets Laika and Jackal mestizos. Historical facts indicate that reindeer spitz became the ancestors of the Samoyed dog when they were brought to Europe at the end of the 19th century.
Over the long history of the breed, it had many names:
The Russian Cynological Federation approved the official name reindeer-breeding spitz. This breed has not changed much since its ancestors. She borrowed her appearance from the peat dog, which became the ancestor of all European Spitz. Since the Nenets Laika was isolated from other breeds for a long time, she managed to avoid crossing with them.
Some experts believe that the Nenets Laika has European roots, and Yamal is its second homeland. When the Scandinavian peoples came to the peninsula from Central Europe, they took with them the descendants of the peat dog, which they managed to make domestic. From them they came to the Lapps (Finno-Ugric people), and only then appeared among the Nenets when they reached the Kola Peninsula.
When the Nenets were not yet engaged in reindeer herding and did not keep animals in herds, they did not have dogs. Therefore, initially the Nenets Laika was a hunting dog, and only then became a shepherd. But the hunter’s instincts only had a beneficial effect on the development of herding skills.
In the 20th century, reindeer-breeding spitz comes to Chukotka and Kamchatka. Before his appearance in this area, the inhabitants grazed deer without the involvement of dogs. They had to look after the herds on their own.
At all times, only one thing was expected from the Nenets Laika perfectly executed commands and instructions from the owner. The appearance of the animal never came to the fore. All peoples who owned reindeer spitz did not select them by color or other external features. Therefore, the breed has retained its originality and originality.
There is another version of the origin of the Nenets Laika. There is an assumption that the breed was formed among the tribes that lived in the Arctic region.
Description of the Nenets Laika breed
The Nenets Laika can be of medium height or slightly shorter. Her physique is quite strong and lean. Sexual dimorphism is strongly pronounced. Males are more massive than females and keep their coat better in the warm season.
Height of males from 44 to 52 centimeters, weight from 22 to 28 kilograms. In bitches from 40 to 45 centimeters and from 18 to 26 kilograms, respectively.
Head. Dry, shaped like an elongated wedge. The length of the skull is equal to its width or slightly exceeds it. The tubercle on the back of the head is well defined. The forehead is convex, but not too. The disadvantage is too small or large head in relation to the body, as well as overdeveloped cheekbones and superciliary arches. The muzzle should not be too narrow, pointed or blunt.
Muzzle. The muzzle is wedge-shaped, tapering evenly towards the nose. Jaws are strong, teeth fit well. The length of the muzzle is several centimeters shorter than the length of the skull. The forehead and cheekbones stand out, the transitions are clearly visible due to the change in coat.
Ears. Have a standing shape resembling an equilateral triangle. Set high and wide on the skull. Highly mobile. The tips of the ears stick up and point slightly forward. Dangling ears are considered a disadvantage, too large and soft. The vice will be ears with rounded ends, thickened and soft. If the ears hang, then such a sign puts the dog out of breed.
Nose. The nose is medium in size, has a black or brown color. The back is straight, elongated.
mouth. Jaws small, with full dentition.
Teeth. Relatively large, strong and snow-white. Well adjacent to each other. The incisors are in line.The dog is full-toothed, with a scissor bite. When the dog reaches four years old, the bite can change to a straight line. The disadvantage will be worn teeth too early, as well as their yellow tint. They should not be small or rare. It is bad if a pair of front molars is missing from birth. Malocclusion, lack of incisors, canines and molars is considered a defect.
Lips. Tight to teeth. Dry, fairly thin. Can be black or brown.
Eyes. Small, almond shaped. Set slightly oblique. Do not sink and do not roll out. The iris may be brown or have a yellow tint. Interested, lively look. Too small or, conversely, large eyes are considered a disadvantage. The fault will be discord or drooping eyelids.
Neck. It has an oval cross-section, well muscled, stands at an angle of 45 degrees to the line of the back. Should not be raw, short and set low. The withers are clearly visible, in males more than in females.
Frame. The back is short and wide. Bitches are longer than males. Has a straight shape and is well muscled. Cannot be humpbacked, sagging or bulging. Loin strong. Croup slightly sloping, straight and wide.
Breast. Dropped to the elbows, wide enough. It has an oval shape in cross section. Shouldn’t be flat. A defect is considered to be a round chest.
Tail. The tip of the tail reaches the hocks. Lowered at rest. When excited raised up and takes the form of a circle or semicircle. An alert dog has a tail down in the form of a sickle. The disadvantage is that the tail is too long or short, not capable of extension from the ring.
Front. Straight, strong and dry. The angle of the humeroscapular joint is 100 degrees or slightly more. Forearms are parallel, vertical. The pasterns are small, slightly inclined. The length of the limbs from the elbows is the same and half the height at the withers. The defect is clubfoot, curvature of the limbs.
Rear. Stand wider than the front. Arranged in parallel. Thighs look firm, strong but dry muscles. Metatarsus shortened, standing vertically. The paws on the hind and fore limbs are oval in shape. The fingers are tucked in, have strong claws. The presence of dewclaws is considered a disadvantage.
It is noteworthy that in the homeland of the Nenets Laikas, dewclaws are not always considered a vice. The Nenets believe that their presence indicates that the dog is faster and better than other representatives of this breed.
The reindeer spitz has a rather lush “fur coat”. Dogs have both a soft and dense undercoat and a long and coarse guard hair. There is also a lot of hair inside the ears, they hide their base at the skull.
On the sideburns (cheekbones), in the region of the neck, shoulder blades, hips and lower body there are pronounced fringes. The longest guard hair is located at the bottom of the tail. It’s quite thick between the fingers. This allows the animal to move easily in the snow.
Short hair can be seen on the muzzle, limbs (front part only). In the neck area, the hair reaches fifteen centimeters in length, and on the tail it can grow up to twenty-five centimeters.
The coat should be straight, waviness is considered a fault, as well as a slight undercoat or lack of feathering. Through too soft wool in the warm season, midges can penetrate, which harms the skin of the dog. Owners of coarse hair suffer less from blood-sucking insects.
Nenets Laika can be of the following color:
The Nenets have black dogs in high esteem, as they can be quickly seen in the grass or snow. And the brindle color is considered a serious flaw, as is the thick spotting on the body.
The Nenets Laika is characterized by mobility and lively character. These dogs are not inherently angry, but they are distrustful and wary of strangers.
One of the distinguishing features of character is endurance and a stable psyche. The reindeer spitz has a strong shepherd instinct, as well as hunting skills, albeit to a lesser extent. They have a great instinct, so the dogs can smell the danger in advance to warn the owner.
Nenets Laikas have small teeth and an easy grip. It helps them do their job well. Dogs graze deer and calves, and when they drive stray cattle, they bite their legs. Medium-sized teeth and jaws, which are compressed with little force, do not allow harm to the herd.
The reindeer spitz will stay with the owner even if he sees potential prey on the horizon. These are brave, resourceful and balanced dogs. Any signs of aggression or cowardice are considered defective in the breed.
The Nenets Laika has a special and strong contact with his owner, as well as a strong motivation to work. The dog will unquestioningly carry out any orders, even if it is out of sight of its owner.
Dogs of this breed are quite sociable. Therefore, with familiar people and members of their family, they are ready to play tirelessly. They are very attached to a person, it is difficult to endure separation from him, even for a short time. Nenets Laika cannot be betrayed and given to other owners. At any opportunity, the dog will run away to find its former owner.
Reindeer Spitz easily and with pleasure learn even the most difficult tricks. They treat training with interest, easily tolerate physical and mental stress. Not stubborn and very obedient.
Nenets Laikas get along well with children. They can even look after the kids, guided, most likely, by their shepherd inclinations. This breed will make an excellent nanny for a small child or a friend for a teenager.
The reindeer dog is neutral to other animals in the house. But it is better to hide small rodents away from her, as hunting instincts may wake up. But with other dogs, and even cats, the Nenets Laika will make friends without any problems.
The dog is very active and mobile, so she needs to throw out her energy every day. This will help long walks on the street, classes and training. In the fresh air, the dog needs to be at least twice a day for an hour, while actively moving.
Education and training
There is an erroneous opinion about all huskies, including Nenets ones, that they are used as sled dogs in their homeland. Even children cannot jokingly harness dogs to sleds, for this they are severely punished. Deer are used exclusively for riding, and dogs help guard them and monitor the herd.
It is noteworthy that in order for the Nenets Laika to “get involved in the work”, she does not even need training. Shepherd skills just run in her blood. To choose the best dog for their herds, the Nenets look at the grown puppies and evaluate their skills and abilities.
Nenets pick up a dog for certain duties. And there are several of them:
In addition to responsibilities and tasks, Nenets share dogs by functions. Sanitar dogs absorb everything that remains after cutting carcasses of animals and fish, and that is not good for a person. Also, these dogs exterminate small rodents that can harm the settlement and its inhabitants.
Some Nenets huskies are brought up as guards. They guard the village, guard the Nenets and their herds from wild animals, as well as from strangers and uninvited guests. Experienced reindeer herders can recognize the barking of dogs and understand what reason the dog is baking. Even the movement and position of a dog’s ears can provide certain information.
Sometimes Nenets Laikas are used as hunters. But this happens quite rarely. The fact is that the Nenets consider dogs with hunting skills to be less effective shepherds, as they are distracted by other animals. But they have an interesting and effective way of hunting wild geese. People release dogs on sitting birds so that they start chasing him as bait. Dogs run to the owner, and geese fly after him. As soon as the birds get close enough, they are shot. In addition, dogs bring wounded animals (wounded birds) to their owners.
But they don’t like to use Nenets Laikas as a vehicle, because they believe that it is dangerous and impractical. The people even have a belief that if dogs are harnessed to teams, then all the Nenets will turn into fishermen and stop herding deer. It is also forbidden to throw a lasso on dogs. The Nenets generally believe that their people never had sled dogs.
Nenets treat their dogs differently. Some perceive them solely as partners or subordinates who are needed for work and the performance of their direct duties. Others consider them full members of the family and allow their pets to sleep next to them.
Another function of the Nenets Laika was to accompany a person. There are many stories of dogs leading their lost owners out of the woods, helping them find their way home. Or protected from the attack of a wolf and a bear.
Now every Nenets family has more than one or even a couple of dogs. Reindeer herders keep five or ten Nenets huskies.
This breed is highly trainable. Therefore, it is easy and pleasant to work with her. Start teaching your puppy from the age of three months the simplest commands:
When the dog is one year old, you can start working with it at a professional level and train it for official duties. It is preferable to train a young Nenets Laika with a more experienced dog so that she can quickly learn commands from her “partner”.
Maintenance and care
On the one hand, caring for a reindeer spitz can be called simple, and on the other, difficult. Thanks to its coat, the dog easily endures both severe frost and sweltering heat. They can work at30 degrees and not feel discomfort. Therefore, the Nenets Laika can be kept in a private house, in a properly equipped enclosure. Despite the fact that these dogs can sleep even in the snow, they will never refuse the comfort of a warm booth.
Nenets Laikas are unpretentious in nutrition, clean enough, which allows them to be kept in an apartment. In the homeland, dogs are never combed. But in the conditions of living in a house or apartment, this must be done, especially during the molting period. If you miss the moment and do not comb out the undercoat, then it will fall into tangles. You can only get rid of them with the help of a groomer, who will have to completely cut off the beautiful dog hair.
In hot climates, Nenets Laikas can shed several times a year. Therefore, they will have to be combed out every other day. To do this, you will need not only ordinary brushes, but also a furminator.
You don’t need to bathe your dog often. In Nenets Laikas, the coat is able to clean itself. If the dog gets dirty in the mud, then it is washed under running water using special shampoos for dogs, which can be purchased at a pet store.
If you keep a Nenets Laika in an apartment, then walking will be a very important part of caring for her. Naturally Active Dogs Physically Need Movement. Therefore, try to take the dog out several times a day and give it the opportunity to run freely.
To ensure maximum movement, take toys outside with you. Perfect for a Frisbee plate or various fetching accessories. During the walk, the Nenets Laika can be safely let off the leash. She will never run away and will try to keep her master in sight. Moreover, she will predict your route and will not chase a cat or other “prey”, as hunting dog breeds do.
In addition to the above recommendations, do not forget about the general ones:
Like other dogs, reindeer spitz must be treated regularly for ticks and other parasites.
In their natural habitat, Nenets huskies feed on the remains of butchered animal carcasses, as well as blood soup, fish, and food from the owners’ table. In the warm season, they can even get their own food by hunting small rodents.
It is clear that in the city it is impossible to provide a dog with such a diet. Therefore, the best option would be a properly selected super premium quality industrial feed.
For the Nenets Laika, both dry and wet options are suitable. Make sure that the food does not have a high content of carbohydrates. Reindeer spitz tends to be overweight. If he does not graze herds of deer around the clock and does not sleep in the snow, then additional calories will be deposited in the animal in the form of fat. Therefore, the feed should contain a maximum of protein.
Never feed a Nenets Laika from the table. Also, the dog should not be given citrus fruits, fried, smoked, salty food. Sweets and pastries are detrimental to the health of Nenets huskies.
Professional food contains all the necessary components for a long and healthy life of a dog. If the dog feels well, then no additional vitamins or supplements need to be given. Next to the bowl of dry food, there must be a bowl of clean water so that the pet can replenish the lack of fluid in the body at any time.
The diet of puppies is different from the diet of adult dogs. This food has smaller granules, as large babies can choke. For older or lactating dogs, manufacturers also produce separate lines. Before choosing a food for your pet, it is best to consult a veterinarian.
As a delicacy, Nenets Laikas will appreciate bones made from pressed tendons. Such goodies will not only help remove plaque, but will also keep your pet busy for a long time.
Nenets Laika Health
Nature has awarded Nenets Laikas with excellent health and immunity, which allows them to cope with any viral or bacterial diseases. If the dog is provided with proper care, then it will live to fifteen years and will be active and cheerful all this time.
Incorrect and unbalanced nutrition can lead to such problems:
One of the most dangerous diseases for the Nenets husky is obesity. The dog easily gains weight if it is overfeeding and not enough to load with physical exercises and running.
There are no genetic diseases in Nenets. Once every six months, it is recommended to visit a veterinarian for a preventive inspection, as well as vaccinates according to the schedule. In the second month of life, the puppy is pricked from plague, enteritis, hepatitis and paragraphipp. Then the revaccination passes. It is important to withstand quarantine after vaccination in order to protect the puppy from possible consequences, and a few weeks before vaccination, conduct deworming.
For whom Nenets likes are suitable?
The Nenets Laika is a rather unpretentious dog of small size. Therefore, it is suitable for those who live in city apartments. But the future owner must understand that in this case he should have a few free hours a day to provide the dog with a good walk. Sitting in a confined space, the Nenets Laika will not only be bored, but will also begin to gain weight. This will be detrimental to her body in the future.
For owners of private houses, the Nenets Laika is also perfect, because it is adapted to living on the street and is not afraid of the cold.
This breed is suitable as a first dog. She is attentive and obedient, does not show aggression. Therefore, the Nenets Laika will become an excellent companion for a young owner who has never encountered dog training before.
It can be started in a family with small children, as well as a second or third pet. Nenets Laika will not share territory with other dogs and cats.
How to choose a puppy?
In the homeland of the Nenets Laikas, they are chosen not by external signs, but solely by their working qualities. Therefore, the exterior of dogs fades into the background. But, if you buy a puppy not in the tundra, you should definitely pay attention to appearance. This will help protect yourself from unscrupulous breeders who may try to sell a mestizo of this breed or a defective puppy instead of a purebred Nenets Laika.
When choosing, you need to pay attention to:
Pay attention to the general condition of the puppy. He must be playful and curious. Excessive lethargy and indifference to everything that happens around may indicate that the puppy is sick.
Choose the largest and liveliest baby from the litter. Such a Nenets Laika, when it grows up, will show its best qualities.