Oceans of the world how many oceans and their names, a map of the oceans in Russian, a list

The water shell of the planet Earth, surrounding all the continents, as well as the islands, covers about 71% of the entire surface of the planet. There is a conditional division of the world ocean into parts. Today the oceans are divided into 5 oceans. In the International Geographical Organization, to the four known oceans of the Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Atlantic, in 2000 it was decided to highlight and add the Southern Ocean.

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean stretches westward between the two continents of Australia and Eurasia, eastward between North and South America, and washes Antarctica in the south.

The ocean got its name at the time when. Magellan traveled around the world and crossed the Pacific Ocean. During this period, the weather was fine, there was no wind, and the water surface was calm. And the traveler called him “Quiet”.

The Pacific Ocean is the oldest in terms of age, largest in area, and also in depth. Its area is 178,684,000 square kilometers, the depth has an average value of about 4000 meters. Across the waters of the Pacific Ocean in the region of the 180th meridian there is a line that corresponds to the change of date.

The Pacific Ocean is also called “great”. After all, he occupies a third of our planet. In shape, the Pacific Ocean resembles an oval, and in the equatorial part it is the widest.

The area surrounded by the Pacific Ocean is unique and diverse in its topography. Geologists call the area surrounding the Pacific Ocean volcanic fire ring. She received such a name because it takes place constant earthquakes and eruption of volcanoes. There are many points at the bottom of the ocean where underwater volcanoes erupt, due to the magma displaced from the Earth’s mantle. The bottom of the Pacific Ocean consists of ridges and gutters, which are in great depths.

The climatic conditions depend on the latitude of the ocean water, what is the next to the mainland and the type of air mass. In the area of ​​the equator is the tropical climate prevails. There is most of the year warm and wet.

In the northern and southern parts, climatic conditions are closer to temperate. There are areas in which winds (trade winds) constantly blow, affecting the climate. The Pacific Ocean is also home to typhoons and tropical cyclones. But the water in it is clear and clean, it strikes with its dark blue color. The temperature is mostly around 25 degrees. The waters of the ocean are inhabited by fish, mammals, and plankton. Invertebrates and scavengers settled on the seabed.

There are many coral reefs in the shallow waters of the Pacific Ocean. Not far from Australia is the largest on earth, the Great Reef, which was created by ocean organisms.

  • Environmental Issues in the Pacific
  • History of the Pacific
  • Atlantic Ocean

    The second largest ocean in the world is the Atlantic. The ocean is apparently named after the hero from ancient Greek mythology, Atlanta. If we take into account the adjacent seas, then its area is 106,460,000 square kilometers. This is almost 22% of the area of ​​​​our entire planet. The shape of the ocean is zigzag.

    It is located in the eastern part between Europe and Africa, on the west side between North and South America. In the northern part, the Atlantic Ocean rejoins the Arctic Ocean and separates Iceland and Greenland. From the south, it borders on three oceans: the Pacific, Indian and Southern.

    The average depth is about 4,000 meters, and the deepest point is the Puerto Rico Trench 8,605 meters. The Atlantic Ocean is the saltiest of all oceans. The waters of the ocean circulate in different currents, so the water is warm in some parts and cool in others. Climatic conditions are directly dependent on depth and winds. Strong hurricane-force winds form off the coast of Africa in autumn. A tropical dry wind constantly acts on the ocean from the south, so the sky is always covered with beautiful cotton clouds. There are no cyclones in the Atlantic. The water has a dark blue hue, and in the African region and off the southern coast of Brazil it becomes bright green.

    Interesting facts about the Atlantic Ocean

    The equatorial part is characterized by year-round hot weather, and the water in coastal areas has a cloudy color. Obviously from the numerous rivers flowing here.

    The diversity of flora and fauna is surprising in abundance: predatory and flying fish, sharks, mangroves, a huge amount of algae and sea grasses. Vegetation is mainly located in the upper layers of ocean waters.

    The main attraction of the Atlantic is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is approximately 1,600 kilometers wide and is mostly underwater. The surface layer is approximately 2500 meters. Partially, the tops of the ridge form surface islands.

    Fresh water from all rivers flows into the Atlantic Ocean, so the water in it is slightly salty. Therefore, there are no corals in it. The wide strait of the Atlantic Ocean is located between the two polar regions of the planet. It flows into the Pacific Ocean, but the inhabitants of their environments differ due to differences in temperatures. Gas and oil deposits and precious stones found at the bottom of the Atlantic.

  • Environmental problems of the Atlantic Ocean
  • History of the Atlantic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean

    The third largest ocean in the world is the Indian Ocean. Its area is 70,560,000 square kilometers. Ocean waters are located between the following continents: Africa, Asia, Australia. The average ocean depth is just under 4,000 meters. The deepest depression, called the Sunda Trench, has a depth of 7258 meters.

    The northern part of the Indian Ocean is similar to the sea, it cuts sharply into the coastal part. And in the Southern Hemisphere, it has the largest width. The total area of ​​the ocean is within 20% of the area occupied by the oceans.

    Climate conditions in the Indian Ocean change as you move from north to south. Monsoons prevail in the northern region. In winter, dry air rushes to the Eurasian continent, and in summer it moves towards ocean waters. Of all the world’s oceans, the weather conditions in the Indian Ocean are the warmest. The tides that occur in the north of the ocean are mostly weak. But if a single wave occurs, then it develops a very high speed (up to 20 km / h), its height can reach 7-10 meters.

    There is an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 115 islands. There are granite islands, as well as coral islands, on which the most diverse marine life lives. Island representatives of the fauna of the Indian Ocean: sea turtles, sea birds and many other exotic animals. Most of the animal world is endemic, that is, limited to geographical habitat and abundance.

    Creepy waves in the Indian Ocean

    In the Indian Ocean, there is a constant decline in species of flora and fauna. This is due to the fact that the temperature of the water increases, which leads to the extinction of plankton, resulting in a violation of the food chain. The waters of the Indian Ocean are clean and transparent. Their shade is very beautiful: it ranges from dark blue to azure.

    It turns out that it is the Indian Ocean that supplies seafood and fish to mankind. In the depths of the ocean there are a large number of oil reserves, minerals, pearls, and in coastal areas there are many precious stones.

  • Environmental problems of the Indian Ocean
  • History of the Indian Ocean
  • Arctic Ocean

    The Arctic Ocean has the smallest area of ​​oceans on our planet. It is equal to 14,060,000 square kilometers. The average ocean depth is approximately 1205 meters. The highest value of the deepest depression is 4665 meters. The Arctic Ocean is located between Eurasia and North America, and the bulk of the water is concentrated near the pole. At the very center of the ocean is the Geographic North Pole.

    Most of the year, the ocean is almost entirely covered with ice, which is about three meters thick. In summer, the ice partly melts. The polar climate and low air temperatures prevail here. The highest temperature is minus 20 degrees. But even at such low temperatures, the western region of the ocean is not covered with ice blocks.

    Renew and replenish the Arctic Ocean with water coming from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Thanks to this, it receives warm water and has the ability to heat marine life. The most famous characteristic of the climate is the presence of polar days and nights.

    Interesting facts about the Arctic Ocean

    The Arctic Ocean has the lowest salt content of any ocean in the world. This is due to the low evaporation rate of cold water and fresh water from rivers and streams diluting the salt concentration.

    Among living organisms there are algae, which in an amazing way have adapted to life in very cold water, as well as on ice floes. Fish such as navaga, halibut and cod live in the water. Habitual inhabitants of the Arctic Ocean are whales, seals and walruses.

    The Barents Sea is rich in plankton, which collects birds in the summer season and whole bird colonies are formed there. Along the coasts of the ocean, geologists have found deposits of oil and natural gas, as well as gold.

  • Animals of the Arctic Ocean
  • Environmental problems of the Arctic Ocean
  • History of the Arctic Ocean
  • South ocean

    The youngest ocean on Earth is the Southern Ocean. Its official separation took place in 2000 by decision of the International Hydrographic Organization. But in atlases and on maps, he signed this way back in the twentieth century.

    The Southern Ocean is a conditionally designated confluence of the southern regions of three oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian. He completely washes Antarctica. But the western and eastern boundaries of the Southern Ocean are still not precisely indicated. In area, he takes the fourth place. It is approximately equal to 20,300,000 square kilometers. The greatest depth is 8264 meters (meteor cavity).

    There are many islands in the waters of the Southern Ocean. Most of them are formed as a result of volcanic eruption, so they have a mountainous relief. Islands are ridges, basins and small uplifts.

    Southern Ocean is there such?

    The climate cannot be attributed to very cold, but it is not warm. On average, the water temperature is in the range from2 to +10 degrees. Strong winds are constantly blowing in the Antarctica area. Therefore, ice cover does not form along the coast throughout the winter season.

    The Southern Ocean is saturated with icebergs who swim in it all year round. Some icebergs have very large sizes. Their length can reach up to 400 meters. Huge ice blocks sometimes cause shipwreck.

    A distinctive feature of the South Ocean is the presence of the largest and very powerful cold surface flow in it. It is called the Antarctic circumpolar course, which moves east, and exceeds a hundred times the streams of all combined rivers of the world.

    The climatic conditions of the South Ocean are harsh. Despite this, living organisms are developing quite actively in it. The peripolar place is favorable for the development of phytoplankton. The relief of the bottom of the ocean is not entirely favorable for the exchange between the fauna and the flora. And the inhabitants have a direct dependence on the conditions. There are more than 180 types of diatomic algae here. In the Southern Ocean, quite a lot of zooplankton, acupuncture, sponges, krill, fish from the Nototenyev family live. The main inhabitants of the South Ocean are penguins.

    Why the Southern Ocean was singled out separately? Oceanographic research on the study of currents in the oceans showed that there are unusual phenomena near Antarctica associated with the upcoming global warming. Therefore, they decided to single out the ocean as a special ecological system and called it the fifth ocean.

    But in the scientific world, there is still a discussion about the number of oceans on our planet. Regardless of the indicated oceans on the map, there is one World Ocean on the globe. All the oceans of the Earth are directly connected with each other and form a single system.

    Map of the oceans of the world

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