Oil mushrooms are extremely mucosa with an extremely mucosa. You might think that such a texture is not suitable for cooking, but in fact they are eaten quite regularly. People who serve this edible mushroom on the table must relieve the upper surface of the hat. This is done for two reasons: the texture of the mucous layer is not only not pleasant, but also contains toxins that cause gastrointestinal disorders.
The scientific name of the oil Suillus comes from the Latin noun SUS, meaning a pig. Therefore, Suillus means “pork” and correlates with a bold hat, which is common for various types of oils.
Oil mushrooms are distinguished from other mushrooms in:
Unfortunately, many types of mushrooms have only some of these characteristics.
As mentioned above, one of the most obvious characteristics of the oil is a mucous cap. Of course, the surface may not be very sticky in dry weather, but the signs of the mucous layer are visible because garbage sticks to the hat. In dried samples, the coating of the hat also remains quite brilliant.
In addition to the texture mucosa, the hat is not very characteristic of this mushroom, reaches 5-12 cm across. It is rounded and convex, but over time is aligned. It has mainly brown, although it varies from dark brown to reddish-brown and yellowish-brown.
The surface of very small pores has a color from whitish to light yellow. In some species, the pores are located by accident, in others radially. With age, the pores darken and become color from yellow to greenish-yellow. Disputes formed in pores are brown. In young mushrooms, the surface of the pores is partially covered with a veil. This bedspread is mostly white and breaks, opens the surface of the pores when the mushroom forms spores. On mature mushrooms, the remnants of a partial curtain can be seen as a ring around the legs and small pieces of fabric remain along the edge of the hat.
Oils-rather squat medium mushrooms with a solid cylindrical leg 3-8 cm long, with a width of 1 to 2.5 cm. Some species have a ring formed from the remnants of a partial curtain (a membrane that protects the pores that form spores under the hat as the mushroom develops). Initially, it is white, then slowly acquires a purple tint, especially on the lower surface. Above the ring, the whitish leg fades to the tone of the hat near the top.
This part of the legs is also decorated with numerous accumulations of cells, which are called glandular points. These glandular dots darken with age and stand out from the rest of the legs in adulthood. Glandular points appear as a result of cell swelling and resemble tiny bulges.
Types of oil
Kedrov oil oil
Mushroom hat up to 10 cm in circumference. In young specimens, it is semisphere, with age becomes arcuate. Color from dark yellow to light or dark brown, dry or viscous. The leg is cylindrical or slightly swells at the base. Sometimes one shade with a hat, but more often pale, covered with brownish convexities.
Yellowish or yellow pulp, does not change color when contacting air. Dirty-gorgeous tubes to red. The pores are small, rounded, mustard color. The smell is not distinctive. The taste is neutral. Disputes 9–11.5 × 4-5 μm.
The cedar oilflower in coniferous forests lives under trees in parks and gardens, form mycorrhizes with pine trees.
Outwardly, the mushroom is incredible, but the taste is pleasant for food receptors, has a characteristic mushroom smell when cooking or pickling.
Gray oilflower decorates a hat in the form of a tuberous pillow, its diameter 5-12 cm. Smooth film raw and sticky on palpation, hardly lagging behind. Distinctive feature brownish scales on its surface. Когда вуаль разрывается, она оставляет хлопьевидные частицы, которые прикрывают трубчатый слой.
Skin from pale gray to brownish, olive or purple. White and loose pulp under the film of the hat at old mushrooms becomes dirty white or brownish. When exposed to blue.
The bottom of the hat consists of wide tubes that run along the leg. The shape of the tubes is incorrectly vague. The color is gray with a brownish, white or yellow tint.
Gray oils propagated by spores. They are formed in spore powder.
The high leg of the gray butter in shape resembles a straight or curved cylinder with a thickness of 1-4 cm, 5-10 cm long. The texture of the pulp is dense, the shade is pale yellow. The veil leaves a white rim on it, which disappears as the mushroom ages. Gray oilcock is collected in larch or pine young forest. The mushroom grows with families or one by one.
Yellowish oil (swamp)
Swamp or yellowish oily one of the most delicious representatives of the mushroom kingdom. He does not belong to the “noble” mushrooms, but experienced mushroom pickers know his price and boast of when they find a mushroom lord.
The marshmallow oil hat is small and not thick, in young mushrooms from 4 cm, in old to 8 cm, covered with an oily film.
Stages of development of the body affect the shape of a hat. Halfshaped in young specimens, it flattens over time and slightly stretches closer to the leg, a small tubercle appears at the top. The color of the hat is discreet, yellowish. In individual specimens, the yellowish color dilute beige, grayish or pale green tones.
The rather small pores of the tubular layer of the hat are fragile, painted in lemon, yellowish or ocher color. The yellowish flesh of the fungus does not emit a pronounced smell and milky juice.
Strong cylindrical leg with a thickness of 0.3-0.5 cm, a 6-7 cm long is slightly curved. After disconnecting the hat from the leg, during growth, a jelly-like translucent ring of white or dirty yellow color appears on the leg. The leg is yellowish, below the ring yellow-brown. Elliptical spore form, spore-wire powder coffee-yellow.
The oilflower is white
The mushroom is rare, so it is better to devote a massive collection to other representatives of the oil family. Specimens quickly spoil after gathering and sometimes they simply do not have time to cook.
The mushroom hat on the diamond up to 8-10 cm. In young specimens, the hat is convex-spacious, the color is dirty white, it turns yellow at the edges. In mature mushrooms, the bulge on the hat disappears as it is straightened. After overgoing, the hat turns yellow and drives inside.
Smooth hat after rain is covered with mucus. When dry, glistens. Thin skin exfoliates without effort. White or yellow hat has soft, dense and juicy flesh. As they old, they blush. The tube layer is represented by tubes with a depth of 4-7 mm. Young mushrooms have light yellow tubes. At a late age, they become yellow-green. At overripe brown-olive. The color of angular-rounded small pores and tubes does not differ. The surface of the tubular layer emits red liquid.
Continuous leg of curved or cylindrical shape without a ring, 5-9 cm high. When ripening on the leg, red-brown spots appear.
Late oilfill (real)
This is a popular mushroom, it is dried, chopped into powder and used for mushroom broth. A wide convex hat 5-15 cm, is revealed as it ripens and becomes more flat. Adhesive film from light brown to deep chocolate-brown.
This is a mushroom, which instead of gills, the pores of a creamy yellow color, they look villous, as the mushroom is aging, the pussy acquire a golden yellow color. Under the hat, the white veil covers young pores, when the mushroom becomes larger, the veil is torn and remains on the leg in the form of a ring. The leg of a cylindrical shape, white, with a height of 4 to 8 cm, with a width of 1 to 3 cm and rather smooth to the touch.
The oilcock is larch
Mushroom mycelium of deciduous butter and trees’ roots exchange nutrients for the mutual benefits of both organisms.
The hat is pale yellow, bright chromium-yellow or bright-rusty yellow, wet after rain and shines even in dry weather. Diameter from 4 to 12 cm in adulthood and becomes almost flat sometimes conical or with a noticeable raised central area. Hats of large specimens are somewhat wavy on the edge.
Lemon-yellow angular pores acquire a cinnamon shade as the fruit body matures. With a bruise, the pores become rusty-brown. The tubes are pale yellow and do not change the color when cutting. A leg with a diameter of 1.2 to 2 cm and a length of 5 to 7 cm. Thin white veil closes the pipes of immature fruit bodies, forms a transitional ring of the stem. When the ring falls, the pale site remains on the stem.
Most of the stem is covered with brown point scales, but above the ring zone the stem is paler and almost no scales.
The oilcock is granular
Mycorious mushroom with pines, grows alone or groups; widespread.
The hat is 5-15 cm, arched, becomes a wide arc with time, smooth, sticky or mucous texture to the touch. Changes color from dark yellow, yellow or pale brown to dark brown or brown-orange. With age, the color fades, becomes patchwork with different shades. The veil disappears. The surface of the pores is initially whitish, then turns yellow, often with droplets of muddy fluid in young mushrooms. Tubes about 1 cm deep. Pores about 1 mm in mature copies.
A leg without a ring, white, with a bright yellow shade near the top or the entire leg, 4-8 cm long, 1-2 cm thick, equal or with a cone-shaped base. In the upper half are tiny, brown or brownish glandular dots. The flesh is first white, in adult mushrooms, pale yellow, does not stain when exposed. The smell and taste is neutral.
Mushrooms similar to oil (false)
Conditional mushrooms similar to oil. They are bitter and upset the digestive tract, but do not lead to fatal consequences after consumption. False oils rarely come across mushroom pickers and have insignificant external differences from real edible mushrooms. Doubles:
When you look at mushrooms, it seems that it is impossible to distinguish false and edible oils, but if you look, this is not so. Conditionally edible mushrooms have a violet tint hat and gray film. The real oil is white. The place of damage to an inedible mushroom turns yellow.
The doubles are thoroughly cleaned and treated with high temperatures at least twice, only after which they are eaten. However, in the Siberian Maslenka, bitterness remains regardless of the number of varok cycles.
The climate of the northern hemisphere allows the oils to grow almost everywhere the entire summer-autumn period. The collection time occurs after a good rain. The growth period in the oil is quite long. From June to October, new mushrooms appear. The exact time of maturation depends on the climate and weather in the area.
- The resin contained in the oil removes uric acid, relieves head and articular pain, soothes the nervous system;
- Mushroom a source of valuable lecithin;
- Oil diet helps with depression and fatigue;
- The skin of the fungus contains natural antibiotics that raise the immune response.
No matter how useful mushrooms are, there are always contraindications. Masles contain fiber impregnated with chitin, which interferes with digestion for violations in the digestive tract.
- individual intolerance;
- pregnancy or feeding milk;
- acute gastrointestinal diseases;
- Children under 7 years old.
All mushrooms accumulate chemistry harmful to health if they grow near an industrial enterprise or a rural region treated with herbicides. Cesium radioactive substance is also contained in the body of mushrooms. The collected mushrooms before heat cooking are soaked several times, boil at least twice with a change in water.