Opening and study of Antarctica history, geographers, tables

Opening and study of Antarctica history, geographers, tables

Antarctica perhaps the most mysterious continent on our planet. Even now, when humanity has enough knowledge and opportunities for expeditions in the most remote places, Antarctica remains littlestudied.

Until the 19th century AD, the continent was completely unknown. There were even legends that south of Australia is an unknown land that is completely covered with snow and ice. And only after 100 years the first expeditions began, but since the equipment as such did not exist, there were almost no sense of such studies.

Opening and study of Antarctica history, geographers, tables

The history of the study

Despite the fact that there were approximate data on the location of such an Earth south of Australia, the study of land for a long time was not marked by success. The targeted study of the continent began during the James Cook trip around the trip in 1772-1775. Many people believe that this was the reason that the Earth was open quite late.

The fact is that during his first stay in the field of Antarctica, Cook ran into a huge ice barrier that could not overcome and turned back. Exactly a year later, the sailor returned to these lands again, but did not find the Antarctic mainland, so he concluded that the land that is located in this area is simply useless for humanity.

It was these conclusions of James Cook that slowed down the further research of this area for half a century the expedition no longer sent here. However, hunters-twyuleboi discovered large herds of seals in the Antarctic Islands and continued to camp on these areas. But, along with the fact that their interest was purely industrial, there were no advancements scientifically.

Stages of research

The history of the study of this mainland consists of several stages. There is no single opinion here, but there is a conditional separation of such a plan:

  • The initial stage, the 19th century the opening of nearby islands, the search for the mainland himself;
  • The second stage is the opening of the mainland himself, the first successful scientific expeditions (19 century);
  • The third stage is the study of the coast and the inner area of ​​the mainland (the beginning of the 20th century);
  • The fourth stage is international research on the mainland (20th century to this day).
  • In fact, the opening of Antarctica and the study of the area is the merit of Russian scientists, since it was they who initiated the resumption of expeditions in this area.

    The study of Antarctica by Russian scientists

    Just Russian sailors put the Cook’s conclusion and decided to resume the study of Antarctica under the great doubt. The assumptions that the Earth still exists, and James Cook was very mistaken in his conclusions were previously expressed by Russian scientists Golovnin, Sarychev and Kruzenshtern.

    In early February 1819, Alexander the Great approved research, and preparations for new expeditions in the southern mainland began.

    The first expeditions on December 22 and 23, 1819 opened three small volcanic islands, and this has already become irrefutable evidence that at one time James Cook was seriously mistaken in his research.

    Opening and study of Antarctica history, geographers, tables

    Continuing research and moving further south, a group of scientists reached the “land of Sandvich”, which was already opened with Cook, but in fact turned out to be an archipelago. However, the researchers decided not to change the name completely, and therefore the terrain called the South Sandwichev Islands.

    It should be noted that it was Russian researchers, during the same expedition, they established a connection between these islands and rocks of the South-Western Antarctica, and also determined that there was a connection in the form of an underwater ridge between them.

    The expedition was not completed on this-over the next 60 days, monitoring scientists approached the shores of the Antarctic, and on August 5, 1821, researchers returned to Kronstadt. Such research results completely refuted Cook’s assumptions previously considered true, and gained recognition from all Western European geographers.

    A little later, namely from 1838 to 1842, a breakthrough in the research of these lands occurred three expeditions immediately landed on the territory of the mainland. At this stage of campaigns, the most, at that time, largescale scientific studies were carried out.

    It goes without saying that in our time research continues. Moreover, there are projects that, subject to their implementation, will allow scientists to be in Antarctica all the time it is supposed to create a base that will be suitable for permanent residence of people.

    It should be noted that recently not only scientists, but also tourists visit the territory of the Antarctic. But, unfortunately, this does not affect the state of the mainland in a positive way, which, however, is not at all surprising, since the destructive effect of a person has a trace on the whole planet.

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