The orangutans are humanoid monkeys that belong to the Pongin family of the Primates detachment. The animal genome is very close to the genome of humans. The monkeys have a very expressive person, in general, they are not hostile and calm, but their habitat is reduced today due to the influence of human agricultural activity.
This species is the last of its subfamily, but before there were sivapitects with gigantopteks. Scientists are still in debate about the origin of animals. Some believe that they are relatives of the Sivapitecs, because the remains of these monkeys that were found in Hindustan have similar features with the skeleton of the orangutans. Other experts are convinced that this species came from Korapitecs who used to live in Indochina.
Karl Linnaeus, a wellknown biologist, wrote the work “Origin of species” in the 18th century, where the Kalimantan Orangutans received a detailed description. Sumatransky were described by other scientists Rene Lesson. It is interesting that earlier these animals were attributed to one species. At the end of the 20th century, a new species was found, which was called the Tapanul orangutan, but recognized it only in 2017. Individuals live on the territory of the island of Sumatra.
Appearance and subspecies
Kalimantan orangutan is quite high if it rises to the hind legs. So, the growth of males is about one and a half meters, and females are a little more than 100 centimeters. Male individuals are larger in everything: they weigh about 80 kg, unlike small females, whose weight is about 40 kg. But besides this, males have huge fangs and growths on the face. There is no wool on the face of the animal, the skin in this place is dark color. Orangutan has a wide forehead and a large jaw. The teeth of monkeys are also powerful, because they crack nuts with them. The eyes are a short distance from each other, and the look very often seems kind. These animals have nails that look like human.
The hairline of the orangutan has a red color with a brownish tint. The wool itself is hard. The cover located on the head and shoulder zone grows up, and in other places down. The vast majority of the cover is on the sides of the body.
The brain of the animal is small only 500 cubic meters. cm, in comparison with other species of monkeys, this organ has a rather large and developed Orangutans. Because of this, many scientists argue that the most intelligent are the most intelligent from a kind.
Individuals of the Sumartan subspecies practically do not differ from their relatives, only their small sizes. Tapanul Orangutans have a small head, and their wool is more likely to curl. A feature of Kalimantan is that special growths located on the cheeks allow you to have contacts with females. In turn, the Sumartan subspecies have such growths only for male dominant individuals.
Where it lives
Typically, these animals live in swampy places in the tropics. There is always a thick forest, which is important, because the orangutans are on trees almost constantly. In the past, these monkeys could be found in the southeast of Asia, now they live only in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
The Kalimantan subspecies is found much more often than the rest, they can be seen in the north of the island. Sumartan also occupy this territory, and the Tapanulsky prefer to isolate from other subspecies to Batang Toru. Their habitat is very small less than a thousand kilometers in a square.
Animals never like to go down from trees, so they often use vines to move around the trees. Orangutans also do not like water and do not visit the watering water, because they get everything they need with food and drink moisture from the hollows.
What they eat
In general, monkeys prefer the food of plant origin. So, they use leaves with shoots, love to eat kidneys and bark. They do not leave unattended fruits such as mango and banana, can eat Durian.
One of the most beloved treats is honey. They are constantly looking for hives, although they know that it is dangerous. Eating also occurs on trees, and animals can descend only if the look falls on something tasty from below.
Orangutans eat insects with larvae, can eat eggs of birds and their cubs. If there is practically no food, then individuals from the Sumatran subspecies are eaten in the food of small primates of Laurie. Tapanul orangutans often eat caterpillars.
Because of this, there are few minerals in their diet, animals are forced to eat soil. The metabolism in animals is slow, because they are weak, although they eat not so many. They are able not to eat for several days and this will not affect the body.
Orangutans prefer solitude, they are quite developed, as they can use tools for hunting and mining. In captivity, animals can adopt some habits of a person who will consider useful. The means of communication are sounds with which they express anger, joy, warning about the approaching danger.
The structure of the body of animals helps them in everyday life. They cling perfectly to the branches with all limbs, can travel long distances, passing from wood to wood. They also sleep on top, and therefore create nests. To learn how to do this, they begin to practice almost from birth. It takes a couple of years to study with Orangutans.
In the process they sleep next to their mother, because otherwise they can break in an unreliable nest. However, then females do not let them in to themselves, and the cubs build their own dwelling. Their “house” is not without comfort, because the oranguts put leaves there, look for soft branches that can be sheltered like a blanket. In captivity, they learn to use it and its.
How many live
They live for about 40 years, but in captivity this figure can increase to 50, or even 60 years.
Society structure and propagation
Males usually marry their territory, sharing among themselves, and are never on someone else’s. However, if this happens, they begin to show fangs and scare each other in every possible way. After that, a weak male individual leaves someone else’s territory, but sometimes the matter ends with a fight.
So, the social structure of these monkeys is radically different from the gorillas adopted. Animals never create groups, the male never lives with a female and offspring. It is interesting that a dozen females account for one male individual.
Sometimes animals still gather, but this happens in attractive trees with juicy fruits. There they actively communicate with sounds and gestures. Scientists have found that they use several dozen gestures to invite someone to play or show something interesting. They also often communicate to clean the wool of another individual from insects and dirt. No less important is the request to leave your territory or share food. It is best to interact with others in Sumartan orangutans, since there are a lot of predators in their habitats and hold together profitably.
Females become sexually mature at about 8-10 years old, and males are somewhere at 13-15. Only one baby is usually born, less often twins are born. The weight of the newborn is 2 kg. The female can give birth to one more. This is due to the fact that the adaptation to very productive periods, when the birth is possible. It is also important that the mother raises her child for about 8 years, 3 of which he feeds on her milk.
It is very difficult for predators to get to the orangutans living on the trees. It is even more difficult to hunt a large and adult animal. But young animals are constantly becoming easy prey for the same pythons and crocodiles. Even tigers hunt on the island of Sumatra for cubs. However, this has little effect on the population of orangutans.
Orangutan and man
Animals constantly suffer due to the fact that people simply cut down their habitats, poachers often hunt for poor. Sometimes orangutans are brought alive to the black market, then to make them stuffed up from them. Most often, mothers are killed, since they do not give their offspring into the hands of poachers. Instead of the usual forests on animal habitats, a person plants oil palm trees, which reduces the population. There are also many experiments on inbreeding, which destroys hundreds, if not thousands of individuals every year.
Population and status of the species
All subspecies are at risk of complete disappearance. Kalimantan Orangutans remained about 60 thousand, Sumatransky about 7 thousand, and Tapanulsky and even less than a thousand. In the middle of the 20th century, the population decreased by 4 times, despite the fact that before scientists did not believe that the orangutans would survive to this day.
Orangutans or Orangutan
The species is called “orangutans”, its name appeared thanks to the scream of Orange Hutan, with the help of which residents warned the rest of the appearance of these animals. Translated by a scream denotes “forest man”. A common version of the name of this monkey is “orangutan”, but this is a conversational option that has nothing to do with the scientific name. From the Malaysian, these words can be translated as “debtor”.
- Orangutan are active in the daytime. They wake up at dawn and look for food for several hours.
- Animals build nests at an altitude of 5 to 30 meters.
- The dwarf orangan is considered a very rare appearance. Today you can meet these amazing animals on Barneo.
- They wipe the muzzle from fruit juice with leaves, and try to scare away the bees in the process of eating honey. Animals also use leaves for prickly fruit mining. Of these, special sponges are created to drink water.
- Animals have movable femoral and shoulder joints, because they know how to sit on the twine.
- Animals often find extraordinary solutions to problems. They can build hammocks and create various nodes.
- Orangutans scare away the predators well, folding his palms in the tube and applying to the mouth during a scream.
- The hands of animals are very long, their scope is about 2 meters. When an individual is in an upright position, hands can reach the feet of the animal. They play the role of support when moving on the ground.
- Thumbs can be opposed to others, usually they are rather curved.
- The female nurses the cub for about 9 months.
- Animals overcome about a kilometer every day.
- Male adults live in territory from 2 to 6 square km.
- Many cubs die from pneumonia or malaria.
- For the first time, animals produced offspring in captivity in 1928, but only by the 70s of the last century they began to do this stably.
- In the zoos of orangutans, they feed bread, various types of cereals, nuts and juices. Animals love to drink compote and tea. They are also often given watermelons and melon. They feed them several times a day.
- Previously, special puzzles were occupied by animals in animals, from which it was possible to get food with sticks. But when they were tired of it, the oranguts began to climb there, and later destroy these puzzles.
- In the zoo, animals, due to boredom, often scatter the feed on the aviary. They like to build themselves nests from straw and climb into cardboard boxes. Orangutans can collect seeds from hay for a long time.
- The male, who has reached puberty, often publishes a loud cry that can be heard at a distance of several kilometers. But it does not attract females and does not scare away other males.
- Orangutanov is very easy to view, they are less aggressive than chimpanzees.
- Animals can fall dependent on tobacco, which is described in the “mysterious island” is true.
- With age, the hairline of monkeys can become more brown and grow up to 40 cm in length.
- The pregnant female has privileges: other individuals always allow her to the feeder of the very first.
The protection of the orangutans
Individuals who live on Borneo know firsthand about snake bites. There are more than 150 species of these dangerous animals, some can kill monkeys. There is a special fund on the island, whose employees help animals by purifying water from snakes. They also take care of the wounded individuals, in animals they often shoot with metal bullets.
There are rehabilitation centers on Sumatra and Kalimantan. They grow cubs who lost their mother, raise them and feed them, and then let them go. They teach kids a lot: finding edible food, protection from the attack of predators. Since the beginning of the work of this organization, about 200 individuals have been rehabilitated.