Orchid, or subfamily sneakers are grassy plants of the same family, which includes more than two hundred clans that make up about 4 thousand species.
The classification of the family is based on the formation of a fused stamens and pestle (t.n. columns), and the nature of the location of the anthers and the upper part of the anthers stigma.
Most species of orchids grow in a tropical belt and here they get ideal conditions for development. And a characteristic sign of the spread of orchid is precisely the variety and originality of the flora of this family on different continents.
Of course, in temperate latitudes, orchids are poorer than in the tropics. For example, in temperate latitudes there are only 75 genera and 900 species only 10% of the total number. In the southern temperate climate, such plants are found even less. Only 419 species from the family of orchids grow on the territory of our country.
Orchids in a temperate belt are represented by longterm grass of the ground type, having underground (which is important for a given family) rhizomes (tubers), but the tropics delight with epiphytic orchids.
Types of orchid plants
The orchid is black
The orchid is yellow
From all the usual flowering plants, the orchid family has a significant difference: we are talking about fostering threads of stamens (there can be several from one to three) with a column of the gunnae. Such a fusion was called a guinostemia or column and, in addition to orchid, a similar device is found only in Rafflezia.
The orchid flowers themselves are usually collected in rampant inflorescences or spikelets, much less often are located alone (for example, Venus Bashmachk). Typically, the flowers are threemembered, decorated with the same cups. Of the three tops, the upper forms the socalled lip a kind of long outgrowth back, with nectar. And, since the position is down to this very lip, optimally suitable for pollination, most orchids are faced with the process of resumination, or twisting.
Characteristics and features
Orchids have great widespread and dominant positions are occupied by perennial herbs, although sometimes there are shrubs, and even large vines among them are found.
Typically, in greenhouse conditions, tropical views of this family live up to serious age about 70 years.
Along with autotrophic forms, saprophytes are also found in orchid forms. And by the nature of the substrate, it is customary to distinguish between epiphytes the largest group, as well as lithofitis and ground, common mainly in temperate latitudes. Epiphytic orchids usually develop serious air root systems that I have no hairs, but are characterized by a special suction fabric, called veneen. Moreover, in some of them, the roots take on the function of photosynthesis instead of leaves.
Orchids are, first of all, decorative plants and they are actively used as greenhouse jewelry (for example, phalaenopsis or cattle).
But the fruits of Vanilla of the flatleaved the most famous and valuable spice, which the whole world knows under the name “vanilla sticks”.
Fly fleshy tubers of some species orchid is used in medicine due to the high content of starch (salup tubers) as enveloping agents to fuel the weakened organism (palcore, Lyubka, anakptis).