Ordinary line (gyromitra esculenta) is an extremely unusual and insidious mushroom. The edibility of this representative has been in question for many years. Most often, it is ranked to the toxic species of mushrooms, which is due to the content of a toxic substance called gyromitrins in its chemical composition.
The ordinary line has a number of names, namely, “elephant ears” and “mushroom-mozg”. Such specific names are due to the unusual appearance of this representative.
The hat of an ordinary line has an extremely distinctive shape. At first glance, it resembles a walnut or human brain. The inside has hollow formations. The shape of a curve with a relief and wrinkled surface. The color of the hat is yellow-brown or chocolate. Old mushrooms are distinguished by the dark color of the skin on the hat. The size of the hat can reach 13 centimeters in diameter.
The leg is narrowed at the base. Can reach no more than 5 centimeters in height with a width of about 4 centimeters. The inside of the leg is hollow. Dry texture with longitudinal tubercles and folds. The color of the legs of young mushrooms is white, which becomes beige with an increase in the age of the mushroom. Composite shallow legs are found.
Mushroom pulp resembles a wax texture. The color of the pulp is cream or white. The aroma is similar to the smell of almonds. The taste is pleasant and not tart. The pulp itself is quite fragile and is easily broken.
Territory of growth
Most often an ordinary line can be found in Europe and North America. This is a typical saproprof that feeds on the dead residues of vegetation. Found on the territory of coniferous forests. Grows under coniferous trees or poplars, less often on the sidelines of roads and forest edges. The fruiting period lasts from April to May.
Until a certain point, Europeans actively consumed an ordinary line. Some people are now adding this mushroom to their diet. The toxicity of this fungus is due to the presence of a gyromitrin, which negatively affects the health of the nervous system and destroys the liver cells. Only drying allows you to reduce the amount of this toxin.
Some mushroom pickers continue to use this mushroom without significant harm only because the amount of toxin in fungi varies depending on the territory of their growth. Ordinary lines that have spread in Germany are extremely dangerous due to a large concentration of gyromitrin. And mushrooms growing in Russian latitudes and other eastern regions have a very small share of this toxin. Despite this, before use, ordinary lines should undergo longterm heat treatment, starting with drying, and ending with second cooking.
In the case of a mushroom with a high content of giromitrin, its use can lead to problems with protein and carbohydrate metabolism in the stomach. Toxin is able to affect organs such as liver and kidneys. Symptoms of poisoning include increased pressure, pulse increased, strong migraine, dizziness, vomiting and diarrhea. First aid consists in washing the stomach. It is also necessary to call an ambulance.
It is recommended to refrain from taking this mushroom to food.
Beginning mushroom pickers can confuse an ordinary line with an edible smok. The main difference is in the form of a hat and skin color. Smore has an eggshaped hat covered with light skin.