Medium-sized orioles nest in trees. Males have bright plumage, females are duller.
Orioles live all year round in forests and spend most of their time in the canopy of tall trees. Birds build a beautiful bowl-shaped nest of wicker grass, where both parents raise the chicks.
The oriole is a cute outwardly bird and its singing is melodious.
- Oriole Description
- How does a female oriole differ from a male and young
- bird habitats
- Features of the migratory behavior of the oriole
- What does the oriole eat
- Sign language used by orioles to communicate with each other
- What Behavior Do Orioles Show During Courting Season?
- Movement of birds during nesting
- The behavior of birds after the end of courtship
- Oriole offspring
The adult male has a golden yellow head, upper and lower body. Wings black with broad yellowish patches forming carpal spots on folded wings, and a yellow crescent in flight. Flight feathers have narrow, pale yellowish tips. The tail is black, on the lower part of the large feathers there are many yellow dots. Yellow head with black eye markings, dark pink beak. Eyes maroon or red-brown. Paws and feet are gray-blue.
How does a female oriole differ from a male and young
The adult female has a greenish-yellow head, neck, mantle and back, the rump is yellowish. Wings green to brownish. The tail is brownish-black with yellowish spots on the tips of the feathers.
The lower part of the chin, throat and upper chest is pale gray, the belly is yellowish white. Lower body with dark stripes, they are most visible on the chest. Plumage at the bottom of the tail yellow-green.
Older females are similar to males, but are dull yellow in color with indistinct streaks on the lower parts of the body.
Juvenile orioles resemble females with a dull colored upper body and striped underparts.
Features of the migratory behavior of the oriole
Winters in northern and southern Africa. Oriole migrates mainly at night, although during the spring migration it also flies during the day. Orioles feed on fruit in Mediterranean regions before they reach their wintering grounds.
The oriole lives in:
The bird in search of food visits orchards, is considered a pest in the Mediterranean regions.
The oriole chooses oaks, poplars and ash trees for nest building. Prefers forests below 600 m above sea level, although it occurs above 1800 m in Morocco and 2000 m in Eurasia.
During migration to the South, birds settle among dry shrubs in savannahs, oases and separately growing fig trees.
What does the oriole eat
Oriole feeds on insects, including caterpillars, but also preys on small vertebrates such as mice, small lizards, eats chicks and eggs of other birds, consumes fruits and berries, seeds, nectar and pollen.
The main diet of orioles at the beginning of the breeding season:
Various fruits and berries are eaten by birds during the second part of the breeding season.
Oriole feeds alone, in pairs, in small groups in tree canopies. It catches insects in flight, collects earthworms and terrestrial invertebrates on the ground. Bird hovering before grasping prey on soil in open areas.
Sign language used by orioles to communicate with each other
During the breeding season, the male sings loudly at dawn and dusk over his territory. Defensive behavior is also accompanied by loud noises.
When threatening an opponent or enemies, the oriole turns its body from side to side and ruffles its neck feathers, sings a song, increasing the number of notes, speed and intensity of the melody.
When other birds fly into the nesting territory, birds of both sexes adopt aggressive postures, open their wings, fan their tails, and stretch their heads forward and fly in front of the intruders. Birds react to other manifestations of threats with these postures and accompany them with screams, flapping wings and beak strikes.
Chases and physical contacts are accompanied, sometimes, but rarely, by a collision in the air or falling to the ground, with the birds holding the opponent with their paws. These interactions sometimes result in injury or death to one of the Orioles.
What Behavior Do Orioles Show During Courting Season?
In mating season, birds sing songs and chase in the air. The male performs a complex flight dance with falling down, hovering, spreading his wings and waving his tail in front of the female. These courtships are followed by copulation, on branches or in a nest.
Movement of birds during nesting
The oriole flies quickly, the flight is slightly undulating, the bird makes powerful, but infrequent wing beats. Orioles sit on branches, fly from the top of one tree to the top of another, never stay in open areas for a long time. Orioles can hover for short periods by making rapid wing beats.
The behavior of birds after the end of courtship
After courtship and the release of the nesting territory from intruder birds, the male and female begin the breeding season. A beautiful cup-shaped nest is built by the female within one or two weeks (or more). The male sometimes also collects nesting materials.
The nest is an open cup-shaped structure, it is made from:
The bottom with a depth of 3 to 13 cm is laid out:
The nest is hung on thin horizontal branched branches, high in the crown of a tree next to a water source.
The female lays 2-6 white eggs with dark spots scattered over the shell in May / June or early July. Both adults incubate the offspring, but mostly the female, for two weeks. The male feeds his mate in the nest.
After hatching, the female takes care of the chicks, but both parents bring invertebrates to the offspring, and then berries and fruits. Juveniles fledge about 14 days after hatching and are free-flying at 16-17 days old, dependent on parents for food until August/September, before the start of the migration period. Orioles are ready for breeding at the age of 2-3 years.