Varieties of oyster mushrooms are called sea ears, oyster or wood mushrooms, and these are one of the most common edible mushrooms. Weekly are cultivated by a person around the world, the mushroom is especially common among farmers and in individual households in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa. Popularity is explained by the simplicity and cheapness of growing, taste attractiveness and high biological effectiveness.
- Legs of oyster mushrooms
- The fruit body of the oyster mushrooms
- Mushroom color options
- Periods of ripening of oyster mushrooms
- The habitat of oyster mushrooms
- Growing oyster mushrooms at home
- Growing mushrooms of oyster mushrooms manually “on earth”
- Growing oyster mushrooms on an industrial substrate in bags
- What kind of oyster mushrooms tasted
- Eye mushroom recipes
- Frying oyster mushrooms
- Office in seasoning
- Stuffed oyster mushrooms
- Openlands in oil
- Dried oyster mushrooms
- Food and medicinal value of oyster mushrooms
- The harm of oyster mushrooms
The hat is fleshy. At first it is convex, and then it becomes smooth. In mature specimens, it has the shape of a sink (according to Latin Ostreatus oyster) like oyster.
The surface of the hats of the mushrooms is smooth and shiny, wavy. At the beginning of growth, the hat is indistinguishable from the leg. Then she takes the shape of oysters, and then goes into the shape of a spatula or fan, as soon as the mushroom reaches maturity. The deepening is formed in the upper part.
Legs of oyster mushrooms
The leg is dense and solid. It is thin on top, and at the base thickens. The base is covered with small, whitish fluff. The place of attaching the hat to the leg is always eccentric, located away from the center.
The gills are thick, branched, pass along the part of the legs. Gills varies from white with a cream tint to white with an ivory shade and grayish color.
The fruit body of the oyster mushrooms
The flesh of the mushrooms is dense, but tender. The color is white, the smell is pleasant, the taste is sweetish. The mushroom is not very fragrant and is almost no smell.
Mushroom color options
The color of the head of the oyster mushroom varies from a dark gray with purple shades to the color of a light and even dark hazelnut.
The tone that takes the mushroom is brownish-dark, brownish-reduced, from black-violet to blue-blue at the final stage of the development of the fetus. Before death, the mushroom turns pale and whitens.
The leg is developed and short. Due to the wrong cylindrical shape, the mushroom seems squat.
Periods of ripening of oyster mushrooms
Mushroom growth and collection period-autumn-winter. Typically, oyster mushrooms are fruit in late autumn, and the vegetation period is extended until spring. Development stops frost, but if the weather heats up, then the mushroom quickly resumes growth.
The habitat of oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushroom is a mushroom saprophytus and only occasionally fungus parasite. Joins the stumps of poplars and mulberries. Okolnoki develop in small groups, are very close to each other. Often, mushroom hats are applied to one another, like a tile on the roof.
These mushrooms develop on trunks even at a significant height of the ground. They grow on broadleaved and rarely coniferous trees. Weekly are also common in city parks, on the edges of roads and highways. This mushroom grows from plains to mountains and difficulties with breeding oyster mushrooms do not arise.
The oyster mushroom is widespread in many moderate and subtropical forests around the world, in the Pacific North-West of North America, the mushroom does not grow. This is a saprophyte, which in nature decomposes dead wood, especially deciduous and beech plantings.
Oyster mushroom is also one of the few famous carnivorous mushrooms. His mycelium kills and digest nematodes that, as biologists believe, is a way that the mushroom receives nitrogen.
Okolnoki grow in many places, but some species develop colonies only on trees.
This mushroom most often grows on dying trees of deciduous species, it acts on them only saprophy, and not parasitically. Since the tree dies from other reasons, oyster mushrooms receive a rapidly growing mass of already dead and dying wood for growth. Okolnoki really benefit the forest, decompose dead wood, return vital elements and minerals in an ecosystem in a form suitable for use by other plants and organisms.
Growing oyster mushrooms at home
For growing mushrooms, shops sell boxes/bags with a substrate and spores of oyster mushrooms, and it is convenient to grow them at home.
Mushroom breeding brings great satisfaction and profitable for the family budget. There are two ways to grow this and other mushrooms. The first method is “manual” cultivation on Earth in the garden or greenhouse. The second, recommended is “industrial” cultivation using substrates (backs) already prepared by enterprises to use the house.
Growing mushrooms of oyster mushrooms manually “on earth”
In the cold season, trunks are cut, possibly from a poplar, more than 20 cm in diameter. The winter period is important because the tree should stop growing. After trimming, the stumps are stored in a shady place in a vertically position in anticipation of use, which usually occurs from April to June.
30 cm segments are cut off from the trunks, pits are pulled out 1 meter wide and 120 cm deep. A layer of mushroom mycelium is placed on the bottom of the pit, and vertically located trunks are placed on top. Then another layer of mycelium and the trunk and so on. The upper part is covered with boards and poured a soil layer 15 cm.
The warmth and humidity that form inside the pit will facilitate the distribution of mycelium through the logs laid inside. In September, the trunks are taken out and instilled one by 15 cm, at a distance of 30 cm from each other. After about twenty days, the growth of oyster mushrooms will begin, which is repeated in every next season.
Growing oyster mushrooms on an industrial substrate in bags
This method of growing, which each person comfortably uses right in the house without the need to dig land or have free space in the yard.
In this case, they use not cut trunks, but bags with a substrate consisting of corn straw, wheat and legumes. This compound is inseminated by the cultures of mycelium, and then placed in a plastic container.
The bale made in this way is ready for incubation, this period lasts about 20 days and takes place in a place with a temperature of about 25 ° C. As soon as the mycelium penetrates the full bag with the substrate, remove the plastic and place the bag on the shelf in a sunny or artificially lit place and maintain a temperature of about 15 ° C.
Week mushrooms grow in cycles in bags with substrate. Growth period is artificially interrupted by a decrease in the temperature in the room.
What kind of oyster mushrooms tasted
The prepared mushrooms of oyster mushrooms have a smooth texture, similar to oyster, and some people talk about a slight taste of seafood. Gurmans believe that oyster mushrooms have a subtle aroma of anise.
Both tastes are implicit, and, as a rule, they cannot be detected after adding mushrooms to the main dish. In general, oyster mushrooms have a mild taste with a light earthy tint.
Eye mushroom recipes
Gastronomic interest to mushrooms is due to two factors. First of all, this is good edibility. Secondly, oyster mushrooms are easy to grow.
Offiches are prepared in various ways. Baked, panic in panic, mushrooms are quite common in many cuisines in the world. As a rule, oyster mushrooms are prepared on grille, panic with butter or extinguished. They are also excellent for taste if they are stored canned in oil.
The culinary culinary leg is recommended because it is not very tender and too hard. Clean and cut oyster mushrooms, like all other types of mushrooms.
Frying oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms is great for cooking in a pan with other products or without them. They are also perfectly breading, as if it were cutlets, especially if it is soft young copies.
Office in seasoning
After short boiling for several minutes, mushrooms are eaten, seasoned with butter, lemon, salt and pepper.
Stuffed oyster mushrooms
After several minutes of preliminary cooking, mushrooms are watered with mayonnaise and seasoned with parsley and finely chopped green onions. To boil mushrooms of oyster mushrooms, vinegar with salt and pepper is added to the water for this recipe. Professional cooks recommend using young copies.
Openlands in oil
Oyster mushrooms, if put in oil or vinegar, retain their fleshy. Thanks to this property, oyster mushrooms are suitable for fillings, rice salads and other recipes.
Dried oyster mushrooms
These mushrooms are also suitable for drying and grinding. In this case, it is advisable to add more aromatic to the mixture than oyster mushroom powders.
Food and medicinal value of oyster mushrooms
There are 100 grams of mushrooms:
Oyster mushrooms have a wide range of nutritional and healing properties. Like most edible mushrooms, this is an excellent source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber, they contain little fat. The mushroom mineral composition varies depending on the type and used substrates.
As a rule, oyster mushrooms contain such minerals: Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Na, Zn, Mn and SE. They are also a source of vitamins B1 and B2, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and niacin.
Okolnoki are considered functional food due to their ability to have a positive effect on human health. Some scientific works report antimicrobial and antiviral properties of oyster mushrooms. Their methanol extracts inhibited the growth of Bacillus Megaterium, S. Aureus, e. Coli, Candida Glabrata, Candida Albicans and Klebsiella Pneumoniae.
Kilquitin, antiviral protein, also found in the fruit body of the oyster mushroom. In particular, mushrooms contain ribonucleases that destroy the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A similar effect is provided by lectin protein, isolated from the fruit body of the oyster mushroom.
Polysaccharides obtained from the mycelium of the oyster mushrooms demonstrate antitumor activity. Doctors observed a decrease in tumor cells by 76% with the introduction of intra-abdominal polysaccharide from cultural broth to females and skewers albinos.
It is noteworthy that the extracts of the oyster mushrooms showed antitumor activity in relation to some types of lung sarka and cervix. It is also reported that the level of antioxidants in fruit bodies is higher compared to other commercial mushrooms.
Okolnoki also show hyalipidemic and antihyperglycemic properties. Mevinolin reduces cholesterol levels. In addition, a compound is produced from the oyster mushrooms for use in antidiabetic medicine. The study showed that the oral intake of water extracts of their oyster mushrooms in mice with diabetes reduces the level of glucose in the blood.
Many species of mushrooms of oyster mushrooms have biologically active compounds such as glucks, vitamin C and phenol, which enhance the effect of some enzymes that reduce the necrosis of liver cells. It is also reported that extracts from oyster mushrooms reduce blood pressure, have immunomodulating activity and antiaging property.
Oyster mushrooms contribute to weight loss. Oysteroli due to the high protein content and low content of fats and carbohydrates help in weight loss. Therefore, if you lose weight, be sure to include oyster mushrooms in the diet.
The harm of oyster mushrooms
The beneficial properties of oyster mushrooms are undeniable and numerous. But these mushrooms can also be harmful to humans.
The most obvious sign that the body does not take oyster mushrooms in large quantities is abdominal pain after a person has crossed mushrooms in any form, fried or boiled. There are no other special contraindications. Foodenness in food is a sign that the ecking has forgotten about the sin of gluttony, and not the side effect of the mushroom. In large quantities, oyster mushrooms provoke bloating, increased gas formation in the intestine, lead to diarrhea and other dyspepsic disorders.
All mushrooms, including oyster mushrooms, are also digested for a long time in the gastrointestinal tract. This is good for the body that extracts more nutrients, but bad for the sensitive stomach. Oyster mushrooms cause pain in the epigastric region in children and the elderly.
Oyster mushrooms allergic to sensitive organisms. Therefore, they are used with caution in food allergies.
Like any other mushrooms, oyster mushrooms are used only after heat treatment, since chitin in mushroom cheese is dangerous for humans.