Penguin Humboldt or Peruvian Penguin (Lat. SPheniscus Humboldti) is a representative of one of the small types of penguins from the kind of germ, the penguin family.
Gumbold’s penguin is, like all the penguins, nonlethal small birds, and its length does not exceed 70 cm, and the weight is approximately 4 kg. This species is first mentioned by the conquistadors, but named after the famous German encyclopedist, traveler Friedrich von Humboldt: it was he who described this species for the first time, and also gave him the name.
Humboldt’s penguins are not expressed in the penguins: both males and females have the same color, only slightly differ in size.
Gumboldt’s penguin has several distinctive features that are characteristic of most penguins: a black back and the same color of the head with light rings-oxes, a white stomach, and a dark strip along the sides of the head, passing through the forehead and throat to the upper chest. Humboldt’s penguin can be recognized by the pink base of the beak and the dark side strip that wrapps over the chest and goes along the body.
These penguins are a social look, and such socialization continues the entire annual cycle. Couples prefer to nest every year in the same place, and are distinguished by monogamy. It is noteworthy that females are well aware of the position of their nest, and are able to identify their offspring by voice. A pair of penguins usually live up the territory around the nests, and recognize their neighbors.
Where it lives
This species was called the Peruvian penguins, which, first of all, is associated with their habitat, which is limited by the stone lines of the Western coast in South America, lasting along Peru and Chile: from the island of Foka (Peru) and Cape Aguha to Los Vilos and Algarroobo ( Chile), where the cool Peruvian current flows.
It is interesting that the territory of Peru occupies only a third of the population of these penguins, and in Chile you can find the other twothirds, and the total size of the world population of these birds is about 12 thousand pairs.
This type of penguin feeds on animal food, preferring anchovies and another flock of fish (approximately no more than 30 cm), including squid and other crustaceans, hunting near the coastline, at a depth of not more than 50 meters. Moreover, quite often prefers to organize a flock hunt for huge jambs.
Gumboldt’s penguin multiplies at any time of the year, and therefore nests are often found in the colony of these birds with eggs, with small chicks, and with grown offspring.
In the laying of penguins, only a pair of eggs are usually present, and both parents force them for 40 days. Many eggs simply die due to weather conditions, destruction of nests and predator attacks.
In principle, the penguins take a lot of time and is not such a simple procedure: they force an egg for more than a month, they feed the chick for several months (if they allow fodder conditions, then two), and for almost a month they feed offspring outside the nest.
Parents feed offspring, going every day every day to hunt, and the older the offspring, the more time it takes to spend on food hunting. Chicks begin to fly from a nest at the age of more than 10 weeks, and after that they are able to leave the colony (they are already older than 3 months!) and can start hunting, leaving for this nesting for a period up to several weeks. But until this point, parents feed them for several weeks.
After the reproduction season ends, the penguins are in sea waters for some time, accumulating fat reserves that they need before molting. The molting process is delayed for several weeks, and all this time the birds do not eat, staying on land.
Adults of penguins have practically no natural enemies on land, and in the sea elements they are threatened with sea predators: sea lions and killer whales. Birds and predatory birds can cause chicks and masonry.
The total population of these birds decreases, which, first of all, is associated with changes in the oceanic currents. Today, this species is quite vulnerable, since even 40 years ago the course of El Nignio and its interference to the lifting of the cold layers of water led to a decrease in the number of fish, resulting in a significant part (more than 65%) of the population.
For this birds, the presence of several peaks of reproductive activity is characteristic. As a rule, this is spring (April-May) and autumn (September-October). This sequence means the presence of two broods in one summer season, of course, if natural conditions allow this. Thus, a certain annual cycle of penguins, which consists of molting (two months) and two reproduction cycles, can be distinguished. Simply put, the penguins of this species do not leave the place of nests all year round.