Pig breeds and types with photos, names and description classification, list, diet

Pigs are ungulates mammals (pairedcaptive) genus SUS in the Suidae family. They come from Eurasia and North Africa. Pigs in nature live mainly in forests and partially wooded areas, play an important role in ecology. Homemade pig, SUS Scrofa Domesticus, was one of the first animals dominant by humans, and is still one of the most important pets.

Types of pigs

African cysteuhi pig (Potamochoerus port)

This is the most colorful representative of the pig family, she has red wool, and she often bathes in rivers and streams. The coloring and distinctive features of the subspecies of the animal are very different. Custeuhi Pig from West Africa is mainly red with a white strip along the back. Those pigs that are found in East and South Africa red, brown or black, sometimes darken with age.

The boars of the muzzle are elongated with two warts, they protect their heads during battles for dominance. Custeuhi Pig quickly runs on land, if necessary, also swims quickly.

Giant Forest Borov (Hylochoerus MeierTzhageni)

This is the largest species of wild pigs. Warts weigh 50 kg more than females. The eastern population is also, as a rule, more than Western. Males of Western forest pigs weigh no more than 150 kg, males from the east gain 225 kg. Adults of both sexes are black or dark brown. Long but rare wool covers the body. Downs the midline of the back, long bristles (up to 17 cm) form a mane that rises when excited.

The muzzles of forest pigs are characteristic: the nasal disk is extremely large (up to 16 cm across), and the males have large swelling under the eyes. Both sexes have sharp fangs, (they are much smaller in females). In males, fangs with a slight bend up, the maximum registered length is 35.9 cm.

Warter (Phacochoerus Africanus/Aethiopicus)

Lives on pastures, and not in the forest, like other pigs. There are two types of warts: an ordinary wart (scientific name Phacochoerus Africanus) and a deserted wart (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).

The most famous of them, an ordinary bearded man, is widespread in Africa south of Sahara, including African horn, a deserted wart is limited only in African horns. Until recently, zoologists made no differences between two types of warts. As such, the boundaries of the spread of these two species on the African horn remain poorly studied, as well as the status of the number.

Babyrusa Babyrussa or Pig-nest

Lives on some islands in Southeast Asia and is distinguished by upper fangs that grow the top of the mouth and bend back, perhaps protect the eyes from trees’ branches when the piglets run through the forest. The animal uses the lower fangs against other babisos in contractions.

In North and South America, where pigs are not aboriginal, a kind of baker (Tayassuidae) occupies the same ecological niche, in shape and behavior resembles pigs.

Bearded pig (Sus barbatus)

These are large and longlegged pigs, males are only a little larger than females. A body with rare wool is usually pale gray. The shade of wool is also reddish-brown, dark brown, depending on the habitat and individual conditions. The tail has a characteristic bundle consisting of two rows of bristly hairs. The muzzle is elongated, on the nose and cheeks “beard” of rough, thick hairs. The beard is more pronounced in males, hairs up to 15 cm in length. The whitish color of the beard (sometimes yellow or silver) shakes the dark skin between the beard, the nasal disk and around the eyes. Males have two pairs of warts on their face, but they are small and hidden inside the beard, they are absent in females. Both sexes have sharp fangs, in males they reach 25 cm in length. The ears are small and pointed.


Brownish wool is rough and bristly, with age Sweeps. Muzzle, cheeks and throat are covered with whitish wool. The back is round, the paws are relatively long, especially in the northern subspecies. Piglets are born with a pattern of light stripes along the body, which disappears between the second and sixth months. The color of an adult boar is formed at the age of the year. Head without warts is long and pointed. The upper fangs form tusks that bend up. Lower fangs are similar to razors, selfadjusting during friction about the upper fangs. The tail is long with a bundle.

Dwarf pig (SUS Salvanius)

The type of endemic for India, the range is limited by the National Park Manas in the northwest of Assam. These are small pigs tall 20-30cm. This species lives in thick, tall meadows. Pigs feed on roots, tubers, insects, rodents and small reptiles. They multiply seasonally in front of the monsoons, give birth to three to six piglets droppings.

Home pig (SUS SCROFA domesticus)

Among the zoologists, the scientific name is SUS Scrofa, although some authors call it S. domesticus, leaving s. Scrofa for wild boars. Boar (SUS SCROFA) is the wild ancestors of the home pig, which was domesticated about 10,000 years ago, possibly in China or in the Middle East. Home pigs spread throughout Asia, Europe, the Middle East, in North Africa and on the islands of the Pacific Ocean in ancient times. Pigs were brought to the southeastern part of North America from Europe Ernando de Soto and other early Spanish researchers. The pigs who escaped freedom became feral and used by indigenous Americans as food.

Description and behavior

A typical pig has a large head with a long muzzle, which is strengthened by a special bone, called before nasal, and with a cartilage disk on the tip. The snout is used to dig the soil in search of food and this is a very sensitive senses. Pigs have a full set of 44 teeth. Fangs called tusks constantly grow and become acute as a result of friction against each other of the lower and upper jaws.

The diet of pigs

Unlike most other ungulates, pigs do not have multichamber gumstones and will not survive only on leaves and herbs. Pigs are omnivorous, which means that they consume plants and animals for food. They eat a variety of products, including:

  • acorns;
  • seeds;
  • green vegetation;
  • roots;
  • tubers;
  • mushrooms;
  • fruit;
  • carrion;
  • eggs;
  • insects;
  • small animals.
  • Иногда, в периоды нехватки корма, свинья-мать съедает своих собственных детёнышей.

    Where pigs live

    Pigs are one of the most common and evolutionarily successful genera of large mammals. They are found in nature in most Eurasia from tropical jungle to northern forests.

    Pigs social animals

    In the nature of the Samki pigs and their young animals live in an extended family group called a herd (adult males are usually alone.) Ekholot members communicate with each other with the help of vision, sounds and smells, collaborate in searching for food and observe predators and fight off them.

    Why pigs love dirt

    Pigs have no sweat glands, so in hot weather they cool the body with water or dirt. They also use dirt as sunscreen, which protects the skin from sunburn. Dirt protects from flies and parasites.

    How pigs propagate

    Pigles quickly reach reproductive age, about a year after birth and give the grades, mainly from 4 to 8 babies in nature, every year after reaching puberty. Pigs differ from other ungulates in that the mother builds a rookery in which she gives birth and cares for the young generation of pigs.

    Harm and benefits for ecology

    These animals benefit forest communities in which they live:

    1. eat dead animals;
    2. control the number of insect pests for trees;
    3. Raise the soil with noses and fangs, which contributes to the growth of plants;
    4. spread seeds, spores of mushrooms, including truffle.

    On the other hand, wild pigs (domesticated pigs that fell into nature) act as agricultural pests and cause damage to the environment. For example, pigs brought to Australia:

    1. destroy the habitat of local plants and animals;
    2. contribute to the propagation of weeds;
    3. destroy pastures and agricultural crops;
    4. Damage to the environment, digging the earth in search of food.

    Why does a person use pigs

    Pigs were looking for truffles, grazed sheep, served game for hunters, performed in circuses and starred films. Anatomical similarities with people are used in medical experiments. Pig’s heart valves transplant into the human heart, pig liver saved human lives, it was transplanted into the liver fabrics of people suffering from acute liver failure, the process is called “perfusion”.

    Pigs are not only food for people, but also pets

    Pigs, as you know, are smart animals, and zoologists have discovered that they are more trained than dogs or cats. Asian Vietnamese pigs, a small breed of domestic pigs, have become popular pets-pitmans. Previously, ordinary home pigs were contained indoors. People stopped sitting pigs in homes due to their large size and destructive behavior. Young piglets are brought into a warm house in winter if it is too cold in the stable. But, as a rule, they are transferred to the corral as they grow old.

    Porodes of pigs

    There are many rocks of pigs with various characteristics that make them suitable for different habitats and obtaining the desired products. Pigs are exposed at agricultural exhibitions, where the jury evaluates them as:

  • tribal number, comparing with the standard characteristics of each breed;
  • either for suitability for slaughter and obtaining a highest meat.
  • The effect of pigs on the environment

    Large populations of wild pigs in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and other areas where pigs are not authentic animals, gave rise to:

  • home pigs that fled to the will or which were allowed to feed in nature;
  • Wild boars that were introduced as prey for hunting.
  • Wild pigs, like other resettled mammals, are the main factors of the disappearance and changes in the ecosystem. They were brought into many areas of the world and damage crops and personal plots, spread diseases. Pigs plow large areas of the Earth, destroy local vegetation and spread weeds. It:

  • Changes the environment;
  • stimulates a segment of vegetation;
  • reduces the fauna inherent in this region.
  • How long the pigs live

    The average life expectancy of domestic pigs is from 15 to 20 years, which is more than the life expectancy of a wild boar from 4 to 8 years. This is due to a high mortality rate in nature.

    How pigs protect against predators

    Pigs are predatory animals, but other species in nature also hunt them. Even in captivity, they attract predators and encounter them, even living next to a person.

    Pigs rely on speed, run away from predators. In addition to speed, they use fangs that serve as a weapon and shield. Unfortunately, in home pigs, fangs are removed, because the owners believe that they do not make sense.

    Another protection of the pig is thick skin, because of which the predator is difficult to bite for the flesh. In addition to physical abilities, pigs also rely on ear and sense of smell. Finally, the intelligence of the pig is the main weapon. The pig takes fourth place among the smartest animals in the world, which means that it easily outwit the predator!

    Enemies/predators hunting pigs:

  • people;
  • coyots;
  • hyenas;
  • Pules;
  • grizzly;
  • wolves;
  • dogs;
  • raccoons;
  • lynx;
  • Lions.
  • In addition to ground enemies, flying predators hunt pigs:

  • owls;
  • Eagles.
  • Feathered predators carry piglets into their nests, harm even adults, sharp claws and beaks leave open wounds.

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