Pig is a widespread, variable type of mushrooms found under various trees. Its hymenopher is the most distinguishing feature: the plates are painted in brown when damaged, and separated as a layer (with the tip of the finger just above the top of the stem).
The hat is fleshy and thick, on the diamond 4-15 cm. In a young copy, she is knocked down, arched with a wide convex vault, with a very curled fluffy edge. Becomes more loose, flatpacked or bending to the center over time. To the touch velvety, rough or smooth, sticky in damp and dry, when the street is dry, thinly lowered. Color from brown to yellow-brown, olive or grayish-brown.
The hymenofor is narrow, tightly located, separates in layers, descends down the leg, becomes convincing or similar to the pores near the legs. Color from yellowish to pale brown or pale olive. In case of damage, it becomes brown or reddish-brown.
The leg is 2-8 cm long, thick up to 2 cm, narrows to the base, the veil is absent, dry, smooth or thinly pubescent, painted like a hat or paler, when damaged, it changes color from brownish to reddish-brown.
The body of the mushroom is thick, dense and solid, yellowish, becomes brown when exposed.
The taste is acidic or neutral. Does not have a characteristic vector, sometimes the mushroom smells of damp.
Types of pigs
Paxillus Atrotomentosus (thick pig)
The wellknown mushroom has a hymenopher, but is part of the group of porous Boletales mushrooms. Hard and inedible, it grows on stumps of coniferous trees and rotting wood, contains several compounds that prevent the eating of insects.
The body of the fruit is squat with brown with a hat up to 28 cm across, with a twisted edge and a pressed center. The hat is covered with a dark brown or black velvety coating. Gills of the mushroom creamy yellow and bifurcated, thick leg is dark brown and grows away from the mushroom hat. Dunka’s pulp is appetizing in appearance, and insects have little effect on it. Disputes are yellow, rounded or oval and have a length of 5-6 μm.
This saprobe mushroom chose coniferous trees stumps in North America, Europe, Central America, eastern Asia, Pakistan and China. Fruit bodies ripen in summer and autumn even in more dry periods, when other mushrooms do not grow.
Fat mushrooms are not considered edible, but they were used as a source of food in some parts of Eastern Europe. Tests for the chemical composition and level of free amino acids in mushrooms show that they do not differ significantly from other edible mushrooms. It is reported that young mushrooms are safe for food, but older ones have an unpleasant bitter or ink taste and, possibly, are poisonous. The bitter taste is claimed when boiling mushrooms and pouring used water. But not all people learn the product even after heat treatment. European gastronomic literature reports on cases of poisoning.
Subtle pig (Paxillus involutus)
Basidiomycetic fungus is thin widespread in the northern hemisphere. He was unintentionally brought to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and South America, probably transported in soil with European trees. Color various shades of brown color, the fruit body grows up to 6 cm in height and has a funnelshaped hat up to 12 cm wide with a characteristic twisted rim and straight gills, which are located close to the leg. The mushroom has gills, but biologists attribute it to porous mushrooms, and not to typical hymenophore.
A thin pig is common in deciduous and coniferous forests, in grassy areas. Ripening season the end of summer and autumn. Relations with a wide range of species of trees are beneficial for both species. The mushroom consumes and accumulates heavy metals and increases resistance to pathogens, such as Fusarium Oxysporum.
Previously, a thin pig was considered edible and was widely eaten in eastern and central Europe. But the death of the German mycologist Julius Sheffer in 1944 forced to reconsider the attitude to this type of mushrooms. It was found that it is dangerous to poison, is the cause of the stomach disorder when eating raw food. The latest scientific experiments have shown that a thin pig causes fatal autoimmune hemolysis even among those who have consumed a fungus for many years without any other harmful consequences. Antigen in fungi provokes the immune system to attack red blood cells. Serious and fatal complications include:
Pig Panusshaped or core (Tapinella Panuoides)
The saprobic mushroom grows singlely or cluster on the dead trees of coniferous species, sometimes on the slope. Fruit from the end of summer to the first cold weather, as well as in winter in warm climatic conditions.
Brown/orange, shell or fan-shaped hat (2-12 cm) in a young pig of a panus-shaped hard, has a rough surface, but with age it becomes smooth, lethargic, orange gills are made with convoluted or corrugated at the base. The mushroom darkens slightly when cutting. The mushroom has no leg, but only a short side process that attaches a hat to the wood.
The smell from weak to fragrant resinous, the taste is not distinctive. The beautiful mushroom smell attracts a person, as well as the external similarity to the oyster mushrooms, but the pig’s pigeon is not edible.
Hymenophores with even edges are located close, relatively narrow. They come from the point of basal attachment, look wrinkled, if you look from above, especially at the old mushroom. Gills are sometimes bifurcated and seemed porous in a mature mushroom, easily separated from the hat. The color of the hymenophore from cream to dark orange, from apricot to warm yellow-brown, unchanged with damage.
Disputes: 4-6 x 3-4 microns, wide ellipsoid, smooth, with thin walls. Imprint of brown spare to pale yellow-brown.
Olkhovaya pig (Paxillus Filamentosus)
Very dangerous species due to its toxicity. A funnel-shaped shape, the same as that of saffronies, but with brown or yellowish-fucked color, with a soft texture and, on the whole, the entire hymenopher crumbles during manipulations.
Under the hat are thick, soft to the touch and dense gills, sometimes they are slightly winding or curly and strongly deviate from the legs, but do not form pores or mesh structure, yellowish or yellow, blushing when exposed to.
Basidi have a cylindrical shape or slightly expanded, end with four peduncles, in the limbs of which the spores of yellow-brown or brown are formed, which obscure mature mushroom samples. Disputes ellipsoidal, rounded from both ends, with smooth walls, with thick vacuoles.
A hat with a smooth surface, which in older alder pigs breaks on the fibers, especially towards a twisted or wavy edge of a light brown or ocher-yellow color. When manipulating, the hat becomes brown.
The surface of the legs is smooth, light brown, also becomes brownish when exposed and has light pink mycelium.
Olkhovaya pig lives in a deciduous forest, hides among alder, poplars and willow. The mushroom is especially dangerous, causes fatal poisoning.
Where it grows
Mycorious mushroom lives among the wide variety of trees of deciduous and coniferous breeds. Also exists as a saprob on a tree. It is found not only in forests, but also in urban conditions. One grows, scattering or in a wide community in summer and autumn.
A pig is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, Europe and Asia, India, China, Japan, Iran, Eastern Turkey, in the north of North America until Alaska. The mushroom is more common in coniferous, deciduous and birch forests, in which it prefers moist places or swampy areas and avoids lime (chalk) soils.
The pig survives in a contaminated environment in which other mushrooms do not survive. Fruit bodies are found on lawns and old meadows, on wood material around stumps in the fall and at the end of summer. Several types of flies and beetles use fruit bodies to lay down the larvae. The mushroom can be infected with Hypomyces Chrysospermus, a type of mold. The infection leads to the appearance of a whitish raid, which first manifests itself in the pores, and then spreads over the surface of the mushroom, becomes from golden yellow to reddish-brown in adulthood.
Edible or not
Dunka mushrooms were used in food in Central and Eastern Europe until the middle of the 20th century and did not cause food reactions or poisoning. The mushroom was eaten after salting. In the raw form annoyed the gastrointestinal tract, but was not fatal.
There are still culinary specialists who urge the tunes to soak, drain water, cook and serve to the table. They even give various culinary recipes, which, apparently, were taken from literature of the 20th century and modified for modern cuisine.
If you think that risk is a noble cause, then do not pay attention to scientific works and deaths that prove that pigs are poisonous mushrooms that cause poisoning. There are many other types of mushrooms that also grow in forests, but are safe for humans.
Symptoms of poisoning
In the mid-1980s, the doctor Rene Flammer from Switzerland discovered an antigen inside the fungus, which stimulates an autoimmune reaction, which makes the body’s immune cells consider its red blood cells alien and attack them.
Relatively rare immunity hemolytic syndrome occurs after reconsumption of mushrooms. Most often this happens when a person consumed a mushroom over a long period of time, sometimes for many years, and he manifested mild gastrointestinal symptoms.
The reaction of hypersensitivity, not toxicological, since it is caused not by a really poisonous substance, but antigen in the mushroom. Antigen has an unknown structure, but stimulates the formation of IGG antibodies in blood serum. During subsequent meals, complexes are formed that are attached to the surface of blood cells and ultimately lead to their destruction.
Symptoms of poisoning are manifested quickly, first include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and this reduction in blood volume. Soon after the appearance of these initial symptoms, hemolysis develops, which leads to a decrease in urine, hemoglobin in the urine or the direct lack of urine formation and anemia. Hemolysis leads to numerous complications, including acute renal failure, shock, acute respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
There is no antidote from poisoning. Supporting therapy includes:
Dunchi also contain agents who, apparently, damage chromosomes. It is unclear whether they have carcinogenic or mutagenic potential.
Scientists have found a natural phenomenon compound atropenin in this type of mushrooms. They use it as an anticoagulant, antibacterial agent. It causes the death of leukemic cells with cancer and bone marrow of man.
There is no particular group of people who would contraind the mushroom pig. Even healthy and not complaining about sores, people can become a victim of this mycelium. Mushrooms are not just complicated in assimilation, they will exacerbate the conditions of people suffering from kidney and blood diseases in the first place, and do not spare those who consider themselves healthy.