Pollution of soil and water with heavy metals in Eurasia and the world

Soil and water pollution with heavy metals in Eurasia and the world

One of the sources of environmental pollution is heavy metals (HM), more than 40 elements of the Mendeleev system. They take part in many biological processes. Among the most common heavy metals polluting the biosphere are the following elements:

  • nickel;
  • titanium;
  • zinc;
  • lead;
  • vanadium;
  • mercury;
  • cadmium;
  • tin;
  • chromium;
  • copper;
  • manganese;
  • molybdenum;
  • cobalt.
  • Sources of environmental pollution

    In a broad sense, sources of environmental pollution with heavy metals can be divided into natural and man-made. In the first case, chemical elements enter the biosphere due to water and wind erosion, volcanic eruptions, and weathering of minerals. In the second case, HMs enter the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere due to active anthropogenic activity: during the combustion of fuel for energy production, during the operation of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the agricultural industry, during mining, etc. P.

    During the operation of industrial facilities, environmental pollution with heavy metals occurs in various ways:

    Pollution of soil and water with heavy metals in Eurasia and the world
  • into the air in the form of aerosols, spreading over vast areas;
  • together with industrial effluents, metals enter water bodies, changing the chemical composition of rivers, seas, oceans, and also enter groundwater;
  • settling in the soil layer, metals change its composition, which leads to its depletion.
  • Danger of heavy metal contamination

    The main danger of HMs is that they pollute all layers of the biosphere. As a result, emissions of smoke and dust fall into the atmosphere, then fall out in the form of acid rains. Then people and animals breathe dirty air, these elements fall into the body of living creatures, causing all kinds of pathologies and ailments.

    Soil and water pollution with heavy metals in Eurasia and the world

    Metals pollute all water area and water sources. This gives rise to the problem of drinking water deficiency on the planet. In some regions of the Earth, people die not only from the fact that they drink dirty water, after which they are sick, but also from dehydration.

    Accumulating in the ground, TM poison plants growing in it. Once in the soil, metals are absorbed into the root system, then enter the stems and leaves, root crops and seeds. Their excess leads to a deterioration in the growth of the flora, toxication, yellowing, wilting and death of plants.

    Thus, heavy metals negatively affect the environment. They enter the biosphere in various ways, and, of course, to a greater extent due to the activities of people. To slow down the process of HM contamination, it is necessary to control all areas of industry, use cleaning filters and reduce the amount of waste that may contain metals.

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