Environmental pollution refers to the increased content of foreign substances in the biosphere. These can be physical, biological and chemical reagents that are foreign and lead to the development of various negative consequences. For many decades, scientists from various fields have been fearing for the state of nature. Increasingly, there is talk of a possible environmental catastrophe due to serious climate change and human impact. Some countries are starting to buy water, and in China there is a trend to bulk purchase bottles of canned clean air. People are beginning to realize the danger of an ecological catastrophe, thanks to which various environmental movements to preserve nature and reduce consumption are gaining more and more popularity.
Sources of pollution of the biosphere
In total, the following sources of pollution are distinguished:
- biological pollution. Assumes the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and anthropogenic impact on the environment.
- chemical pollution. Associated with a change in the natural chemical composition, as a result of the ingress of foreign chemicals.
- physical pollution. It implies a change in the physical characteristics of the biosphere.
- Mechanical pollution. Hazardous waste pollution without a characteristic physico-chemical change in the atmosphere. Sources of pollution are glass, polymers, etc.
All of the above types of pollution can affect the biosphere both separately and together.
Types and causes of pollution
Each source of pollution discussed above affects different layers of the biosphere. Main types of pollution:
- Water pollution. Harmful substances such as oil and its decay products, chemical elements with the properties of metals, radioactive isotopes, garbage from sewer systems and various mineral salts for fertilizer enter the aquatic environment. The ingress of chemicals into the water contributes to the formation of xenobiotics, which are dangerous for human and animal organisms.
- Soil pollution. At last count, 27% of soils are subject to erosion. When toxic substances and a large amount of debris enter the ground, the cycle of soil systems ceases to flow unhindered. The condition of the soil is affected by the construction of houses and industrial enterprises, the organization of roads, agriculture, and worst of all, nuclear energy.
- Air pollution. The air shell of the Earth directly affects the state of the soil surface, since it is a filter element that prevents the effects of cosmic radiation. For example, acid rain occurs due to the high concentration of sulfur oxide and nitrogen released by chemical plants.
Consequences of pollution of the biosphere
The main consequences of pollution are:
Analyzing all the consequences of pollution, identifying ways to protect the land and prevent human impact is one of the most important issues that all states must address.
Methods of struggle for improving the environment
First of all, it is necessary to determine a number of measures for the competent exploitation of natural resources. Because our future well-being depends on it. An important link in improving the state of the biosphere is the creation of new waste treatment facilities and the introduction of devices in production that reduce emissions of chemicals into the atmosphere. In the household life of each person, a rule of separate waste collection should appear. Competent disposal of garbage, the introduction of new devices for cleaning industrial enterprises and the use of organic fertilizers will contribute to the improvement of the state of the environment.
Irrational nature management and mass pollution of nature led to the development of public movement to protect the state of the biosphere. Developed countries and part of developmental countries pursue state environmental policy. Environmental laws were adopted with the introduction of this policy that create specialized environmental protection authorities. However, only part of the countries are not enough for the most effective environmental policy, the efforts of the entire world community are needed.