There is a huge amount of water on Earth, pictures from space prove this fact. And now there are concerns about the fleeting pollution of these waters. Sources of pollution are emissions into the oceans of domestic and industrial wastewater, radioactive materials.
Causes of pollution of the waters of the oceans
People have always strived for water, it was these territories that people tried to master in the first place. About sixty percent of all large cities are located on the coastal zone. So on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea there are states whose population is numerically equal to two hundred and fifty million people. And at the same time, large industrial complexes throw about several thousand tons of all kinds of waste into the sea, including large cities, and sewerage is also drained into the sea. Therefore, one should not be surprised that when water is sampled, a huge number of various harmful microorganisms are found there.
With the growth in the number of cities, the amount of waste poured into the oceans is growing. Even such a large natural resource cannot handle so much waste. There is a poisoning of fauna and flora, both coastal and marine, the decline of fisheries.
They fight pollution of the city in the following way waste is dumped away from the coast and to great depths with the help of many kilometers of pipes. But this does not solve anything at all, but only delay the time of destruction of the completely flora and fauna of the sea.
Types of pollution of the oceans
One of the most important pollutants of the ocean water is oil. It gets there in every possible way: with the collapse of oil carriers; accidents in sea oil fields, when oil production from the seabed. The fish dies due to oil, and the one that survives has an unpleasant taste and smell. Sea birds are dying out, only last year thirty thousand ducks died-a sailor near Sweden due to oil films on the surface of the water. Oil, floating in marine currents, and, sailing to the shore, made many resort areas unsuitable for relaxation and bathing.
So the intergovernmental marine society created an agreement by which it is impossible to drain oil into the water fifty kilometers from the shore, most naval powers signed it.
In addition, radioactive contamination of the ocean is constantly occurring. This happens through leaks in nuclear reactors or from sunken nuclear submarines, which leads to a radiation change in flora and fauna, it was helped in this by the current and with the help of food chains from plankton to big fish. At the moment, many nuclear powers use the World Ocean to deploy nuclear missile warheads of submarines, and dispose of spent nuclear waste.
Another of the catastrophes of the ocean is the bloom of water, associated with the growth of algae. And this leads to a reduction in the salmon catch. The rapid reproduction of algae is due to the large number of microorganisms that appear as a result of industrial waste disposal. And finally, we will analyze the mechanisms of self-purification of water. They are divided into three types.
ocean chemical pollution
Every year, the waters of the oceans are increasingly polluted by waste from the chemical industry. This is how the trend of increasing the amount of arsenic in ocean waters was noticed. Heavy metals lead and zinc, nickel and cadmium, chromium and copper significantly undermine the ecological balance. All kinds of pesticides, such as endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, also cause damage. In addition, the substance tributyltin chloride, which is used to paint ships, has a detrimental effect on marine life. It protects the surface from overgrowth of algae and shells. Therefore, all these substances should be replaced with less toxic ones so as not to harm marine flora and fauna.
Pollution of the waters of the oceans is associated not only with the chemical industry, but also with other areas of human activity, in particular, energy, automotive, metallurgy and food, light industry. Utilities, agriculture, and transport have an equally detrimental impact. The most common sources of water pollution are industrial and sewage effluents, as well as fertilizers and herbicides.
Waste from merchant and fishing fleets and oil tankers contributes to water pollution. As a result of human activity, elements such as mercury, dioxins and PCBs enter the water. Accumulating in the body, harmful compounds provoke the appearance of serious diseases: metabolism is disturbed, immunity is reduced, the reproductive system does not work properly, and serious problems with the liver appear. Moreover, chemical elements can influence genetics and change it.
Pollution of the oceans with plastics
Plastic waste makes up whole clusters and spots in the waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. Most of the garbage is generated due to the dumping of waste from densely populated areas of the coast. Often marine animals swallow bags and small particles of plastic, confusing them with food, which leads to their death.
Plastic has spread so much that it can already be found in subpolar waters. It is established that only in the waters of the Pacific Ocean, the amount of plastic has increased by 100 times (studies have been conducted over the past forty years). Even small particles can change the natural ocean environment. It is estimated that about 90% of the animals that die on the shore are plastic waste, which is mistaken for food.
In addition, the danger is the suspension, which is formed as a result of the decomposition of plastic materials. Swallowing chemical elements, sea creatures doom themselves to severe torment and even death. Do not forget that people can also eat fish that is contaminated with waste. The composition of its meat contains a large amount of lead and mercury.
Consequences of pollution of the oceans
Polluted water causes many diseases in humans and animals. As a result, populations of flora and fauna are declining, and some are even dying out. All this leads to global changes in the ecosystems of all water areas. All oceans are sufficiently polluted. One of the most polluted seas is the Mediterranean. Wastewater from 20 cities flows into it. In addition, tourists from popular Mediterranean resorts make a negative contribution. The dirtiest rivers in the world are the Citarum in Indonesia, the Ganges in India, the Yangtze in China and the King River in Tasmania. Among the polluted lakes, experts name the Great North American Lakes, Onondaga in the USA and Tai in China.
As a result, there are significant changes in the waters of the World Ocean, as a result of which global climatic phenomena disappear, garbage islands are formed, water blooms due to the reproduction of algae, and the temperature rises, provoking global warming. The consequences of these processes are too serious and the main threat is a gradual reduction in oxygen production, as well as a decrease in the resource of the ocean. In addition, adverse developments can be observed in different regions: the development of droughts in certain areas, floods, tsunamis. The protection of the oceans should be a priority goal for all mankind.