Pomeranian: everything about the breed from A to Z, dog photo and description


  • Country of origin: Germany
    The size
    22-30 cm at the withers
    The weight
    from 2 to 3 kg
    12–15 years old
    FCI breed group
    spitz and breeds of primitive type
  • Brief information

  • playful;
  • active;
  • curious;
  • stubborn.
  • History of the breed

    The Pomeranian, also called the Pomeranian, is a breed of a primitive type according to the IFF classification. The appearance of this dog can be called very “royal”. The Pomeranian originated from wolf-like dogs that were common in Serbia and northern Russia. At the beginning of the seventeenth century they were brought to Pomerania. At that time, it occupied the territory of eastern Germany and western Poland. There they began to be actively used for hunting and driving, as well as for grazing.

    The weight of such a dog was about fifteen kilograms. Color could be different: beige, white, black. At the end of the seventeenth century, Queen Charlotte of England brought several Pomeranians to her homeland. Their names are even preserved in history Mercury and Phoebe. A couple of times dogs were depicted in portraits next to the owner.

    In 1888, in Italy, Queen Charlotte’s granddaughter acquires a dog named Marco. She was as similar as possible to the modern Pomeranian and weighed only five kilograms. But at that time this breed was called Volpino Italiano. Now this breed also exists, but its representatives have only snow-white wool. And Marco was a beautiful caramel color. Soon bright and fluffy dogs became very popular in the UK.

    Queen Victoria took over the “baton” and continued to breed and select Pomeranian. Her dogs were smaller, so the breed was called Toy Pomeranian. The queen’s nursery consisted of thirty-five individuals. Victoria’s favorite dog was Gina.

    The breed became popular in America. In 1888, the first Pomeranian was registered in the United States. And in 1892 this breed took part in the exhibition for the first time. In 1900, the Pomeranian was officially recognized by the AKC. Today he is in the TOP 10 most popular breeds around the world.

    Description of the Pomeranian breed

    The Pomeranian has a rather dense and developed musculature, but this does not prevent the dog from being quite graceful. According to the breed standard, which refers to dwarfs, the height of the body at the withers is equal to its length and is no more than twenty-two centimeters. Weight can be from one and a half kilograms to three. Representatives of the show class weigh, basically, two kilograms.

    Head. small size. Behind the skull is wide, wedge-shaped, narrower in the nose area. The occipital protuberance is weakly expressed, the forehead is rounded. Cheekbones are not clearly visible due to pronounced cheeks.

    Muzzle. Narrow, significantly smaller than the skull, which exceeds it in size twice. With a characteristic well-defined stop.

    Ears. Set fairly close together and triangular in shape. The ends of the ears are pointed. Puppies have drooping ears, and as they age they take up a standing position.

    Nose. Small in size and neat, has a black color. Red colored dogs are allowed to have a brown nose.  

    mouth. The upper jaw is “overlapped” in relation to the lower, so the dog gets a scissor bite. Possible direct or pincer bite, which is not a defect.

    Teeth. Forty-two teeth in the mouth. Premolars may be missing.

    Lips. Black color, good fit. In dogs with red hair, they can be dyed brown.

    Eyes. Small size, slanted. They are oval in shape, can also be almond-shaped. Eyelids black or dark brown. The look is lively and conscious, which makes the dog look like a fox.

    Neck. Strong, has a slightly arched shape and medium length. No hanger. The landing is high, but it is masked by a puffy “collar” made of wool.


    Frame. The neck passes into the withers, after which a fairly short back follows. The loin ends smoothly with a sloping croup.

    Breast. Well muscled, the stomach is tight, not sagging, the ribs are palpable well.

    Tail. Medium length, set fairly high. Twisted into a ring, which is located on the back. Due to this, the dog seems small and round.


    Front. stand wide. The muscles on the shoulders are well palpable. The fingers fit snugly and look neat, giving them a cat-like appearance. Pads black, may be brown in light colored dogs.

    Rear. Are parallel to each other. Equal hip to calf ratio. Paws are round, small in size. There are black claws at the ends of the clenched fingers, which may have a chocolate tint.


    The Pomeranian has a very dense undercoat. It covers the skull, muzzle and ears, as well as the limbs on the front side. All other parts of the body are covered with longer hair. It is straight, no curls. On the shoulders and neck there is a characteristic “mane”. The tail has a thick coat of wool, it merges with long hairs on the hind legs.


    Color standards in the Russian Federation and the USA are different. The RKF recognizes Pomeranians in black, white, red and brown. Small white spots on the legs and chest are not a fault. In the USA, colors such as merle, brindle, sable and so on are allowed. Blue dogs are the most expensive.

    The Cynological Association has adopted the following Pomeranian color standards:

  • White. The ancestors of the breed had just such a color. According to the standard, no inclusions of other shades are allowed;
  • Black. In dogs of this color, the coat is very shiny, shimmers in the sun. The undercoat should be of the same shade;
  • Ginger. Color intensity can vary from red to orange. On parts of the body such as the chest, paws and muzzle, the shade may appear brighter;
  • Brown. The shade can be either light chocolate or dark brown. The standard favors more saturated colors;
  • sable. Wool has two shades. It is lighter at the root than at the tip. Color can be red, caramel, beige. Its intensity also varies;
  • Party color. A few more colors are added to the main tone. At the same time, the base should always be white, but any shades can be additional. The most common Pomeranian is black and white. Inclusions should be evenly distributed over the body, the color of the muzzle should be symmetrical;
  • Spotted. In this case, any color can serve as the base. But blotches can only be gray, red or black. As in the case of party colors, the spots should be evenly distributed throughout the body;
  • Brindle. Slightly reminiscent of sable, but has stripes like a tiger. They may be brown, red, or dark in color;
  • Black and tan. The base color is coal, and on the muzzle, chest and paws the shade changes to red or sable;
  • zoned gray. The color of these dogs resembles wolf fur. The hairs are gray or ashy, and black hair appears on the muzzle, ears and around the eyes. The undercoat may be red, cream or gray. The tip of the tail is almost black;
  • Cream. Dogs with this color are born white. Then, after the first molt, they acquire a beautiful creamy shade. It can be saturated warm or light cold;
  • Blue. Of the recognized colors, this is one of the rarest and most valuable. In life, such dogs look the most impressive. In this color there may be a shade called merle, but this is considered a deviation from the standard.
  • The nature of the Pomeranian

    Very cheerful and cheerful breed. Sometimes it may seem to the owner that a motor is hidden in his pet: the Spitz rarely sits still. He is always running somewhere, doing something and is always ready to play. Therefore, walking with this dog is rather a forced necessity the Spitz needs the opportunity to at least partially throw out all his energy, so as not to accidentally destroy the house while playing.

    These adorable dogs are incredibly cute. Their outward neatness and diminutiveness give others the erroneous impression that they can be safely approached, stroked and ruffled by the ears. In fact, Spitz is very proud and does not let strangers. He can regard familiarity as a manifestation of aggression and will not pretend to protect his honor and dignity from the encroachments of ignorant.

    Spits are very smart and cunning. They noticed when the owners react favorably to some of their tricks, and with pleasure demonstrate them again at every opportunity.

    But these babies are not so simple to train training. The owner will have to be patient Spitz can be capricious and stubborn. But that is why it is impossible to postpone the training and education of this dog. If you put the matter by chance, Spitz will grow up in a cute, but uncontrollable little monster, which will, without silent, yap and bite everything that will only come across to him in the way.

    Despite their miniature, Spitz strive for world domination: they will try to seize power in their own house. Therefore, it is important for the owner not to lose vigilance and periodically let the dog know who is in charge.

    Spitz get along reluctantly with other animals. In fact, these dogs are very selfish and not ready to share the owner’s attention with someone. Although, if you get a Spitz puppy at the same time as another pet so that they grow up together, they can get along great.

    Education and training

    You should start training your Pomeranian as soon as he crosses the threshold of your house. So the puppy will quickly get used to the rules established for him. First of all, the baby needs to master the basic knowledge, and only then learn commands with him. We are talking about the fact that the dog must be aware of how to behave with all family members, as well as learn what is allowed and forbidden to her. Often, this takes one to two weeks.

    When the puppy has already settled down at home, he should explore the world around him with interest. If this does not happen, and the baby is still afraid of everything around, then this is a reason to contact the dog handler. This behavior is not typical of the Pomeranian.

    You can start training with a four-legged pet with the first exit to the street. Most often, this moment comes when quarantine ends after a routine vaccination. But it is not necessary to conduct classes only on the street. The first attempts can be made at home, where there will be fewer distractions for the puppy.

    Do not be afraid to “overload” the puppy. This can only happen if you use outdated techniques that were based on abuse and intimidation. Proper training from the first days of communication will allow you to establish a trusting relationship with the dog and establish the necessary contact. Don’t wait for the unwanted behavior to take root in your baby, start parenting as early as possible.

    The first step is to teach the Pomeranian to go to the toilet on a diaper. Take your time to teach him to do it outside too soon. Two-time walks can be started no earlier than six months of age.

    As soon as you accustom your baby to a diaper, start working with a leash. So that the collar does not cause additional stress to the dog on the first walk, start putting it on at home.

    Immediately mark the dog the boundaries of what is permitted. Many mistakenly think that with age, the Pomeranian will understand everything himself and learn good manners. But unwanted behavior will only get stronger. Therefore, from an early age, teach your baby:

    Pomeranian: everything about the breed from A to Z, dog photo and description
  • play only with your toys and do not touch your personal belongings;
  • do not bite your hands, even as a joke;
  • correctly build a rest mode so that the dog sleeps at night and does not wake you up;
  • leave furniture and shoes safe and sound;
  • to be at home alone without barking and howling.
  • Never physically punish a puppy. Don’t yell at him. Such methods of education are unacceptable. This can lead to the fact that the animal grows up cowardly and embittered. 

    By three months, you can teach the Pomeranian the first commands. It should be the base of obedience, but not tricks. Learn with him such necessary commands as “come to me”, “no”, “sit”. Only after the puppy remembers them well, you can start learning new ones. To get your dog interested in work and training, use treats as praise.

    Training at such a young age shouldn’t take too long. Otherwise, the puppy will quickly get tired and stop doing what you want from him. Fifteen minutes will be enough. It’s better to train your dog several times a day, little by little, than to do one long workout.

    The Pomeranian needs to be socialized early. This breed without proper attention and education can show aggression. In addition, the tiny Spitz is a very brave dog. He can pounce on a larger opponent without hesitation. Such a quarrel will end badly for him.

    If you are unable to cope with the training and training of your dog, then it is better to contact a professional dog handler. He will help identify problems and eliminate them, giving advice for further education.

    Maintenance and care

    Particular attention should be paid to wool. Spitz have a very dense undercoat that should be brushed at least once a week. With such care, the Spitz will not shed and cause inconvenience with its crumbling hair.

    Spitz can and should be sheared. The frequency depends on the animal and the goals of the owner. If the owner decides to seriously engage in exhibition participation, visits to the groomer will have to become regular.

    The dog’s teeth should be brushed with a specially designed toothpaste several times a month, and preferably every week. For these procedures, you will need a special brush or nozzle that is put on your finger. Dental bones are an excellent prevention of plaque. They remove it in the process of nibbling. Since the Pomeranian is a miniature breed, you should choose the smallest bones.

    To cut the nails, you will need a nail cutter for dwarf breeds. After the procedure, process the sections with a nail file. To prevent the paw pads from roughening and cracking, rub a mixture of vegetable oils into them, which can be purchased at a specialty store.

    Pomeranian is an exclusively decorative breed. Although these babies bravely rush at strangers with loud yapping, they cannot be used for protection. Pomeranians are not intended for life outside the comfortable conditions of an apartment.

    If you give them the opportunity to periodically spend time in an open area, for example, in a country house, the owner will need to keep in mind that the Spitz’s natural curiosity knows no bounds: he can easily run away and go in search of adventure.


    For the Pomeranian, you should choose premium or super-premium dry food. They contain all the necessary minerals and vitamins.

    Do not feed your Pomeranian from the table. This will not only lead to the fact that the dog will constantly beg, but can also harm the health of the dog. He will develop allergies or stomach problems.

    For puppies, food that is intended for adult dogs is not suitable. Little Pomeranians need a more fortified diet. Many companies produce special lines of food marked “junior”, which are perfectly balanced and suitable specifically for Pomeranian puppies.

    This breed can gain weight quickly, so never overfeed your dog. Each package of food has a table according to which it should be given. Obesity is very dangerous for dogs. A small puppy is fed four to five times a day. After five months, the number of feedings is reduced to three. An adult dog is fed twice a day in the morning and in the evening.


    Compared to other dwarf dog breeds, the Pomeranian is remarkably healthy. Even “retired” these dogs are cheerful and cheerful, they are distinguished by good health. And all thanks to the northern origin.

    The Pomeranian has a thick coat, which means that with rare care, tangles will form in it. Some dogs may suffer from alopecia areata (when hair falls out on certain areas of the body). Happens with Pomeranian and so-called black skin. With this disease, the hair falls out completely, and the skin becomes dark, almost black. Such an ailment does not affect the health and well-being of the dog in any way. But his appearance becomes repulsive.

    It is noteworthy that Pomeranians with merlin color are most often sick. These puppies are often born deaf, with high intraocular pressure, and other eye defects. They may have heart defects, diseases of the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system. 

    In Pomeranians, the most common diseases are:

  • underdevelopment of ligaments;
  • dislocations of the joints in the knees;
  • indigestion;
  • gastritis and other gastrointestinal problems;
  • spasm of the larynx;
  • excessive tearing of the eyes;
  • hydrocephalus;
  • hypoglycemia.
  • Some males have undescended testicles.

    Who is this breed for?

    The Pomeranian is ideal for people who suffer from bad mood, apathy and bouts of depression. It will be an excellent companion for those who decide to move more and be in the fresh air. Pomeranian is a “magic pill” from despondency and laziness. He is always cheerful, because even the expression of the muzzle of this dog looks like a smile. Spitz is active and always ready for walks on the street. Remember that such frequent and long walks are necessary for this breed. Therefore, if you are a homebody or simply cannot pay enough attention to the dog, then give up this breed in favor of another.

    The Pomeranian is an ideal choice for those who want a miniature dog, but not to carry it under their arm, but to constantly walk with it. It is started by those who would like a big dog, but cannot provide it with sufficient living space. Therefore, the Spitz is often taken to small apartments.

    Spitz will feel good even in the “odnushka”. Dogs of this breed tolerate both low temperatures and heat well. Therefore, they can be started in any climate. Pomeranian will be the best companion for people who live in the north of Russia. After all, because of the cold winters, it is difficult to keep many miniature dogs there.

    If you love furry animals, then it is difficult to find a more pretty creature than a Pomeranian. His coat is his decoration and dignity. The future owner must understand that she needs careful care.

    This dog, like any other breeds, has its drawbacks. These include the willfulness of character. It takes time and perseverance to train a puppy. Therefore, the Spitz will be a good choice for a teenager or for a person who wants to engage in dog training on an ongoing basis. It is better to start this breed for those families where someone is always at home so that the dog does not remain alone.

    Due to their innate selfishness, these dogs do not get along very well with other animals and may show aggression towards them. Therefore, it will be better if your Pomeranian becomes the only pet in the family.

    Famous Pomeranian Owners

    Pomeranian, due to their courage, funny and cute appearance, as well as incredible attractiveness, have become the favorites of many famous people.

    This breed was popular not only in its homeland. Pomeranians lived at the court of Catherine the Great. Emperor Paul the Great had a pet named Spitz, who accompanied him everywhere. Historians claim that Marie Antoinette was a fan of this breed, as well as Michelangelo and Martin Luther King.

    In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, King George III and Queen Victoria helped popularize the breed. A noblewoman had a dog named Tori, with whom she never parted. He even sat at the Queen’s deathbed. In England at that time they called the Pomeranian the favorite breed of Queen Victoria.

    In these times, people of art were very fond of Pomeranian Spitz. The famous German artist Ludwig Richter very often depicted this breed on his canvases. The French writer Emile Zola owned several Spitz dogs that accompanied him everywhere. The poet Jean Paul even refused to go to a reception if he was not allowed to take his four-legged friends with him.

    The great Mozart himself was a fan of the Pomeranian Spitz. He had a dog named Bimperla, for whom the composer wrote a separate work.

    Very often, the Pomeranian became the hero of literary works. Chekhov in his story “The Lady with the Dog” wrote about the white representative of this breed.

    This was followed by a slight decline in interest in these fluffy dogs. But these days it’s risen again. Ozzy Osbourne, Renat Ibragimov, Philip Kirkorov, Bogdan Shust acquired Pomeranians. Yulia Volkova, lead singer of the Tatu group, has a dog named Ricky. And the foreign star Mischa Barton has a dog Ziggy.  

    How to choose a puppy?

    Before you choose a Pomeranian puppy, you must understand why you need it. If it’s just for love and company, then a pet-class kid will suit you. It is not so expensive, but has all the qualities and beautiful appearance of the Pomeranian. But for exhibitions, this option is not suitable. This requires a show class dog. Its price will be much higher. Well, if you plan to start breeding this breed, then you will need a breed-class dog.

    The future owner must understand that this or that class cannot guarantee that the puppy will become a super-champion or that the animal will give a good offspring. In order not to make a mistake with the choice, it is necessary to purchase a puppy from experienced breeders or well-known kennels. In fact, any puppy can become a champion, even a pet class. The main thing is to pay due attention to the care, health and training of the baby. Of course, in this case, the dog must fully comply with the breed standard.

    To choose a good puppy, pay attention to his health and how he looks. A dog that is healthy will be fun, playful, and interested in connecting with you. He should not be afraid of the outstretched hand to him. The size depends on what kind of dog you need. If petite, then give preference to the smallest puppies.

    A dog’s behavior in the future is greatly influenced by its gender. If you choose a male, you will need to be prepared for the fact that they are more aggressive and stubborn than females. Girls are distinguished by a complaisant and gentle disposition. Although, of course, there are exceptions.

    Price for Pomeranian

    Pomeranian in one picture

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