Radioactive waste (RAO) is those substances that contain radioactive elements and cannot be used in the future secondly, since they do not have practical value. They are formed during the extraction and processing of radioactive ore, during the operation of equipment releasing heat, during the disposal of nuclear waste.
Types and classification of radioactive waste
By type of RAO, they share:
This classification is relevant for Eurasia and adopted at the international level. In general, division into classes is not final, it requires coordination with various national systems.
Freed from control
There are types of radioactive waste in which a very low concentration of radionuclides. They practically do not pose in danger to the environment. Such substances belong to the released category. An annual amount of irradiation from them does not exceed the level of 10 MK3V.
Rules for handling RAO
Radioactive substances are divided into classes not only to determine the level of danger, but also for the development of the rules of handling them:
What is the danger of RAO
Garbage containing radioactive elements is dangerous for nature and people. It increases the radioactive background of the environment. Together with water and food products, RAO enter the body, which leads to mutations, poisoning and death. Man dies in agony.
To prevent such an outcome, all enterprises using radioactive elements undertake to use filtration systems, control production, disinfect and dispose of waste. This helps to prevent an ecological disaster.
RAO danger level depends on several factors. First of all, this is the amount of waste in the atmosphere, the power of radiation, the area of infected territory, the number of people who live on it. Since these substances are deadly, in the event of an accident, it is necessary to eliminate the catastrophe and evacuate the population from the territory. It is also important to prevent and stop the movement of RAO to other territories.
Storage and transportation rules
A company working with radioactive substances should provide reliable storage of waste. It involves the collection of RAO, their transfer to the burial. The means necessary for storage and methods are established by documents. For them, special containers made of rubber, paper and plastic are made for them. They are also saved in refrigerators, metal drums. Transportation of RAO is carried out in special tight containers. In transport, they must be securely fixed. Only those companies that have a special license can be transported.
The selection of processing methods depends on waste characteristics. Some types of garbage are crushed and pressed to optimize waste volume. Certain residues are customary to burn in the furnace. RAO processing must meet the following requirements:
Collection and deletion
The collection and removal of RAO should be carried out in places where there are no radioactive elements. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the aggregate state, the category of waste, their properties, materials, the halflife of the radionuclides, the potential threat of substance. In this regard, it is necessary to develop a strategy for dealing with RAO.
For collecting and removing, specialized equipment must be used. Experts argue that these operations are possible only by medium and low active substances. During the process, each stage should be controlled to prevent an environmental disaster. Even a small mistake can lead to an accident, environmental pollution and the death of a huge number of people. It will take many decades to eliminate the influence of radioactive substances and restore nature.