About 750 species of mushrooms are the type of “rawers”. Copies, as a rule, are ordinary, rather large and brightly painted, which makes the rahs one of the most recognizable types of mushrooms among mycologists and collectors.
- Raws a description
- How rawers interact with the environment
- The main types of rawers
- Differences are white
- The cheese is yellow
- Rawhouse is a tubular tubercle
- Rawshela is green
- Food raw
- Wilch raw
- Swamp raw
- False rawers
- Inedible cheese:
- Rawsers are benefits
- The harm of rawers
- How to cook rawers correctly
- Where the rawers grow
Raws a description
Distinctive characteristics of rawers:
Microscopically, the genus is characterized by amyloid ornamented disputes and pulp (tram) consisting of spherocyst.
The rawies have a characteristic dense consistency, which is reflected in the appearance of the gills and legs and makes the mushrooms recognizable. There are no traces of the veil (without rings or leftovers of the veil on a hat).
The gills are fragile and do not emit milk matter on the surface of the cut, with the exception of several species, and they cannot be bent without breaking.
The presence of large spherical cells of the spherocyst in the leg is an important characteristic feature that distinguishes rahs from other mushrooms. The mushroom leg breaks like an apple pulp, while in most other species it is divided into fibers. The color of the powder disputes varies from white to cream or even orange.
Relatively easy to determine the mushroom belonging to the species. But difficulties arise when identifying individual genera. This task requires the study of microscopic characteristics and subtle subjective differences, such as the difference between the mild, bitter and caustic taste gamut. Moreover, the exact phylogenetic relationships of mushrooms have not yet been resolved in the professional mycological community, and they depend on the analysis of DNA.
The following characteristics are important when identifying individual births:
Despite the difficulties in the exact identification of the collected samples, toxic species are found in sharp caustic taste. In general, there are no deadly poisonous species among the rawies, and some species with a slight bitter taste are edible.
How rawers interact with the environment
All types of rawers form ectomycorous symbiosis with higher plants and trees, and each kind of mushrooms has a single or diverse spectrum of hosts. Some species form a connection with one or more owners in habitats, while others are limited in choosing the owner, range, or both.
The fruit bodies of the rahs provide a seasonal source of food for slugs, protein and deer.
Some rawers accumulate high levels of toxic metals from the environment. For example, a black-purple rawhole accumulates zinc due to the presence of metal-like peptides in the body of the mushroom. Blamping boosts accumulates lead and mercury from the soil. The level of these metals in the body of the mushroom is 5 higher than in the environment.
People collect several types of rawers. In North America, it is recommended to be careful when using any kind of rahs. European mushroom pickers are more favorable to this type and a list of edible rawies in European cuisine is impressive. Rawsers are also eaten in Mexico, at Madagascar, Asia and in the Pacific Islands.
The main types of rawers
Rawsers that eat without fears:
Differences are white
One of the largest mushrooms of the species of rawers. The milk-white loads appear from under the ground, pushing pine needles, peat or fallen leaves, therefore, a large not quite white hat is usually dirty and damaged. White loads are common in forests with broadleaved trees, found in regions with alkaline or neutral soil.
It is quite significantly expanding by the time when the mushroom appears from the ground, and it raises the soil and fallen leaves. Convex, with a twisted edge until fully ripened, the hat soon becomes a funnel-shaped, with age pale yellowish-brown. The surface is matte and dry.
White and does not change color when cutting.
Cylindrical, short, smooth, no rod ring.
Weak fish or oily feutor, bitter and burning taste in the gills, but rather soft in the hat and stem.
The cheese is yellow
Lives in moist places in birch and aspen forests throughout Europe and North America. A distinctive feature a yellow hat, white gills and legs, sits in places of damage. Has a soft taste and is considered good for food.
Yellow yolk, slightly sticky in a wet state, leaves and other garbage stick to it. Observe a small recess in the centered mature individuals, the edge becomes groove.
White, rather hard, straight.
All parts become dark gray with aging or damage. The smell is fruit.
Rawhouse is a tubular tubercle
Dark-beard or purple edible mushroom, grows next to coniferous trees in late summer and autumn. Found in Europe and North America.
Dark purple-brown, with a dark, sometimes almost black center. First convex or even almost bellshaped, but later smoothed out. Almost always retains a wide pointed ledge in the center, which is a unique feature of this type. The skin is exfoliated by 2/3, has a furrow edge.
Solid, white, wide and narrow-cellular. Gills are pale blond, spores of the same color. Initially, gills are quite closely located. The pulp is white and has a soft taste, but the skin of the hat in the tongue is bitter.
Rawshela is green
Edible mushroom is widespread in the northern moderate areas, found under birch in pine forests.
Flat, soon funnel-shaped and poorly striped, slightly sticky and shiny, from light green to light gray-green, less often olive-green.
Closely located, pale cream at a young age, later light yellow when disputes ripen.
White, sometimes with rusty spots at the base, quite short with longitudinal grooves.
White, brittle, smell, with soft taste.
Widely widespread wherever there are oaks or beeches in continental Europe. The gills and the surface of the legs quickly become the colors of the somon, if you rub iron (Feso4) or gloomy tincture with gvya tincture. These are useful tests, because the color of hats and pinkish fragile gills is so variable that it has limited value as a diagnostic sign.
Varied in color, from dark red to bright red, sometimes with brown, olive or green tint. The color of the “old ham” accurately describes the hat of the diet.
The hat is smooth, initially spherical, convex, sometimes with a small central deepening. The cuticle of mature individuals does not quite reach the edge, the flesh of the hat and the edges of Zabert are visible from above.
White or pale cream, located quite close, narrow, bifurcated next to the stem.
The surface and flesh are white.
Soft nutty, there is no characteristic smell.
A few mushrooms have green hats, so the identification is not problematic. Vilchanaya raw-galaxy has a grassy green hat, sometimes with a yellowish tint, is found throughout the continental Europe and in many other parts of the world, including North America.
Pale or very pale green to the tone of the grass, gradually becomes pale to the edge, exfoliates halfway to the center. Convex, with a slight deepening in the center. Mucus, when wet, the edge is slightly corrugated, the surface is not cracked.
White, yellow with age.
White, more or less cylindrical, sometimes narrows at the base.
Slowly pink when reaction to iron salts (Feso4).
It is easy to take for a poisonous raw dwelling, both species grow in one environment coniferous forest. The specific epithet “swamp” involves a connection with the swampy earth, and really the mushroom is often found under coniferous trees (especially pines) in peat, swampy areas of moss forests, but not only.
Red, crimson-brown or ocher color, sometimes with pale spots, the skin exfoliates 1/2 to the center. Pink flesh right under the cuticle. Halfspherical, then convex, becomes flat with the central funnel; The edge is striped.
Cream or bright guards, frequent.
White, cylindrical, sometimes expanded in the center or with a slightly tuberous base.
There are no toxic rawers. People do not die after they eat a false raw. Mushroom pickers do not collect specimens that smell pleasantly, but have a burning caustic taste.
Weak-ovate and toxic rahs. Symptoms of poisoning
The main pattern of toxicity observed among the types of rawers is gastrointestinal disorders in those people who consumed mushrooms with acute (caustic) taste for food in cheese or undercooked form.
After a person eats a false raw, his mucous membranes of the body is annoyed, including in his mouth and intestines. False rawers imitate the fruit bodies of edible brothers, distinguish harmful mushrooms in:
Rawsers are benefits
Mushrooms are rich in lecithin, minerals, vitamins, contain many dietary fibers, simple carbohydrates, fatty acids, but at the same time smallcalorie. People eat rahs when they want:
- lose weight;
- clean the gastrointestinal tract;
- solve digestive problems.
The enzyme from the rawhouse is curled up milk, the mushroom is added at households when they make cheeses and cottage cheese.
The harm of rawers
People with gastritis, ulcer and heart diseases should refrain from dishes from rahs. Mushrooms are not easy for the body. Even people without serious problems get more harm than benefits, if they eat too much rahs for one meal.
The normal dose of mushrooms for adults is no more than 150 grams at a time, even if these are highquality specimens collected in environmentally friendly areas. Children up to seven years of age, pregnant and elderly people should also refrain from dishes, which include russula.
How to cook rawers correctly
In culinary practice, mushrooms are vastly used. Before cooking, the rawers are poured with water for several hours. Drain water, boil in new water for about 5 minutes to remove bitterness.
The first dishes are not refueled with rawers, since food becomes bitter. Mushrooms are fried or served in sauce, for example, sour cream. Fried rawers are an independent dish or additive, say, to potatoes.
Raw hats are grinded with meat on cutlets or fried in batter and breadcrumbs. Mushrooms are combined with stewed or fried vegetables.
Raws are salted, pickled and then served like a delicacy. The taste of the mushroom will enhance garlic, onions, pepper and other spices. The very next day, rawers are edible.
Unusual and piquant dishes are obtained when rawers are added to other mushrooms, greens, onions, seasoned with spices.
Where the rawers grow
These mushrooms are symbiotic with many trees, so they are not collected only under birches as chice or next to the Buca like a fox.
Rawsers grow everywhere. This is an amazing form of life that loves moisture and damp for active growth. Seek raw dungeons after rain. They bear fruit in the same places a year after year. Find the mycelium once and make stocks annually.
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