A certain number of animals and plants disappears annually in the world. Sometimes local, only in certain areas. But it happens that some kind of type is completely exhausted, and meetings with it are no longer registered. The changed habitat of living organisms is to blame for this. They can be natural, for example, climate change or natural disasters. But the main reason that the species disappear or find themselves on the verge of extinction is human activity.
Awareness of this problem led people to the idea of the allocation of individual zones, where any human activity is prohibited, except for scientific or familiarization. So there were reserves (places for which are completely closed) and national natural parks open to tourists.
On the territory of the state there are 10 reserves under its jurisdiction and property. Including rare species of animal and plant world are studied.
The very first reserve founded in 1926 was Aksu-Jabaglinsky Reserve. He lies in the Turkestan and Zhambyl regions, in the northwest of the Talasky Alatau and part of the Ugam ridge. The total area of the reserve exceeds 57 thousand ha. It presents a large species diversity of plants and animals, including such redhot species as a whitewinged woodpecker, a snow leopard, a margin of Menzbra.
Korgalzhynsky reserve, like Aksu-Jabaglinsky, is included in the UNESCO list and is under its protection. Its area is very large and is more than 543 thousand hectares of land. It was created with the aim of preserving unique water-bolotylands, which are the habitat of many species of birds (pinks (pink and curly), flamingos, sovka and other birds). Salted and fresh lakes make up the main area of the entire reserve, among which the most significant are the lakes of Korgalzhyn and Tengiz. This system of lakes is a unique place in which the Crossing of the Central Asian and Siberian-Yuzhno-European ways of migration of birds occurs.
The Ustyurt reserve located in the Mangistau region was founded in 1984 to preserve the desert zone on the Ustyurt plateau. The creation of this reserve ensured the protection of local animal species represented by various classes, as well as plants, including several species listed in the Red Book (Marena Cretaceous, Khivinskaya and others Solyanka).
The Naurzum reserve, created in 1931, ensures the preservation of the steppes in the natural form of the zone with its characteristic landscape, plant and animal species composition. Its territory in 191381 ha is divided into three sites: nursum, rash and tercade. Each of them is unique in its own way. There are many fresh and salty lakes, multitraffic steppe sections, as well as the famous Naurzumsky Bor in Naurzum. Sawsen and Tersek also include various zones of forests, steppes, rivers and lakes. The large species diversity of flora and fauna is ensured by the wealth of various natural zones, and most importantly, their inviolability, which the state ensures.
The location of the Barsakelmes reserve is the Aral region of the Kyzylorda region. He is the only reserve in Kazakhstan, located in the place of the global environmental disaster, which is the drying of the Aral Sea. This place is unique to study desertification, change of ecosystems, species of living organisms, their adaptations to changing conditions, as well as the formation of new reliefs and landscapes. Quite rare species of plants (for example, Tulip Borshchov) and animals (curly pelican, dwarf tushka, jayran, and others) are represented here.
Alakolsky Reserve was founded in 1998. The purpose of its creation is to preserve unique ecosystems with a natural species composition characteristic of a given area. In the system of large lakes, among which the most famous can be called Lake Alakol, a population of a relic Seagull lives. This species is on the verge of disappearance, so it is so important to preserve this area in an untouched form. There is even a buffer zone around the reserve, free from hunting, fishing and boats parking.
Back in Kazakhstan, there are smaller ones, but also significantly important, reserves: Almaty, Markolsky, West Altai, Karatau.
National parks of Kazakhstan
The main idea for which national natural parks are created is to preserve the corners of nature untouched by human activity. At the same time, people have access to familiarize themselves with the wild environment, its study and just cultural rest. National parks are under the special protection of the state in whose territory they are located. There are 13 natural parks in Kazakhstan. Two more is planned to be opened in the Karaganda and Zhambyl regions.
Bayanaul National Park
In 1985, the Bayanaul National Park was founded in the Pavlodar region. Its area is more than 68,000 hectares and has a predominantly mountainous relief. Separate rocks for a long time acquired intricate features, which many tourists gather every year. There are many large and small lakes on the territory of the park. The most famous: Sabyndyndol, Zhasybai, Byrzhankol, Toraigir. This park presents a rich species diversity of animals, plants, mushrooms. There are redknit representatives.
Altyn-Emel – National Natural Park in the Almaty Region with the territory, more than 307 thousand hectares. The basis of the local landscape is mountains, as well as sandy and clay deserts. He was established in the spring of 1996 in order to preserve unique natural places with their characteristic plants and animals, many of which are endemic. 21 species of plants also grow here and 56 species of animals listed in the Red Book live. One of the most important attractions includes the Cosbastau tract with a 700-year-old willow.
Ile-Alatau National Park
The Ile-Alatau National Park formed in the same year is designed to protect, study local landscapes, plant and animal world, as well as develop tourism in a given area. The official date of the base of the park is 22.02.1996.
The terrain of the terrain is mountainous, the branchist and complicated. The location of the mountain ranges of the Zailiyan Alatau determines the direction of the river flow. There are at least 265 glaciers in the mountains, many of which are the sources of the rivers: Issyk, Aksai, Turgen and many other rivers and their tributaries.
Kokshetau – Another interesting National Park of Kazakhstan, located in the Akmola region. The steppe and foreststeppe natural zones with a sharply continental climate are on its territory. There are 282 species of vertebrates, which, along with historical, cultural and natural complexes, are objects of constant study and protection. Vegetation, depending on the places of growth, includes forest, meadow and steppe types. On the territory of Kokshetau there are 13 unique natural monuments, such as split hill, hill “Two brothers”, Green Cape, Relict Massive and others.
Karkaralinsky State National Park
Karkaralinsky State National Park, located in the Karaganda region, is characterized by landscape diversity and ancient objects. Relict plants of the ice age have been preserved here to this day, many rare and redknitted species. Also in the park there are monuments of archeology of different eras, for example, Kent settlement, Kyzylkent Palace, Taldy II burial ground.
The National Park of Kolsai Lakes formed in 2007 is located in the Almaty region of Kazakhstan. In addition to the Kolsai lakes, a picturesque lake of Kainda is located here. It was formed due to the earthquake. Its result was a flooding of a valley with fir trees growing on it, the trunks of which rise directly from the water of the lake. The proximity of water determines the wide variety of flora and fauna. There are more than 700 species of plants in the park, among which there are many representatives listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan. There are also a lot of red-knitting birds (Berkut, Blue Bird, Falcon-Baloban and others) and mammals (for example, archar, snow leopard, Turkestan lynx).
In the National Park of Burabay, located in the Akmola region, a regime similar in restrictive measures with reserves is established. The park has a large species variety of plants (more than 700 species), which also determines the variety of representatives of the animal world. Fauna here is mixed: there are northern and southern, European and Asian, steppe, forest and animals characteristic of mountainous areas.
In addition to the above in Kazakhstan, several more national parks formed in the zero years of the 21st century: Katon-Karaga, Charynsky, Saram-Ugamsky, Zhongar-Alatau, Tarbagatay and Buiratau.
Reserves or their parts are assigned a certain status, depending on which certain restrictions are imposed on a person’s activity here. This can be a ban on both hunting and fishing, and parking of cars, boats and other vehicles. On the territory of the reserves and national parks of Kazakhstan there are various natural zones (deserts, semideserts, steppes, mountainous and wooded areas, as well as ponds), and each of them has special ecosystems with untouched nature under state protection.