Most scientists who study water bodies agree on the World Ocean: it is a pantry of natural resources of enormous size, which in quantity can even exceed all the minerals and materials located on land.
Wealth primarily includes sea water, because its volume is more than 96 percent of the entire hydrosphere. If we round up the number of inhabitants of the globe and take their number as eight billion, then each of us will have about 250 million cubic meters of sea water. Such a figure already sounds amazing if we could actually use even one thousandth of this amount. But there are many animals living in the oceans that affect our lives and could become extinct, removing only 0.001% of the total mass of the oceans. In addition, a noteworthy fact is the information that there are about 75 different chemical elements in sea water: gold, magnesium, salt and even uranium are in water. By the way, iodine, which is very important in human life, is also produced from sea water.
We must not forget that in the World Ocean there are many mineral resources located on its bottom and under it. Most important for modern man is gas and oil, which make up approximately 90% of the cost of all other natural resources extracted from the bottom. About a third of all oil is extracted from reservoirs. Another wealth of the depths of the ocean can be called deposits of iron and manganese ores, in which, in addition to the latter, there are 30 different types of metals.
We must not forget that the current is a source of energy, which, although it is now used now, is not particularly effective, but in the future it can become even more popular than wind generators. Plants, algae, animals and other biomasses that live in sea waters also matters to us.
Types of Ocean Resources
The composition of the oceans includes every sea, strait, and logically, the ocean. From the main types of resources, several of the most important and necessary can be distinguished:
- Water resources. They include sea water, which was written above.
- Minerals. Various metals that are mined at depth play an important role in people’s lives. The main amount is located in the Barents and Caspian Seas, as well as near the Gulf of Mexico.
- biological resources. Most people love to eat sushi, and in their composition, the most delicious and important ingredient is just the same fish, which is caught at a depth. The most “prolific”, without a doubt, can be called the Japanese, Norwegian, Bering and Okhotsk Seas.
- Energetic resources. Water may not be the main source of energy, but its energy has a very high potential.
Since the 20th century, when scientists began to study the World Ocean in full, several more important types of resources have appeared:
natural resources of the pacific ocean
More than half of all seafood that is shipped anywhere in the world is concentrated in the Pacific Ocean. More than two thousand species of fish, tens of thousands of shellfish and the like, various octopuses and other fish are found throughout the Pacific Ocean. There are even more types of algae here than anywhere else. About half of them, by the way, are related to peridineans, and a smaller part to diatoms. The largest number of them is found on the western side, since the water there has a colder temperature and enriches nutrients with oxygen. Algae are found in almost every region of the oceans.
If you divide the Pacific Ocean into parts, then in the southern and eastern brown algae will be more common, especially those that belong to the kelp group, and in the southern hemisphere among them you can find real giants from this family up to two hundred meters long. In the tropics, fucus, large green and world-famous red algae are the most common, which, without a doubt, are on a par with coral polyps and are considered reef-forming organisms.
It is also noteworthy that the fauna of the Pacific Ocean is several times richer than in other oceans, this is especially noticeable when considering tropical waters. In the seas of Indonesia, there are more than 2 thousand species of fish, although in the northern ones their number does not exceed three hundred. In the tropical zone there are more than 6 thousand species of molluscs, and in the Bering Sea at the same time there are about two hundred of them.
For the fauna of the Pacific Ocean, the characteristic features are the antiquity of many systematic groups and endemism. A large number of ancient species of sea urchins live here, primitive genera of horseshoe crabs, some very ancient fish not preserved in others.
Another feature of the Pacific Ocean is that about 95 percent of all existing salmon species live here. Gigantism is characteristic of many species of the fauna of the Pacific Ocean. Thus, in its northern parts you can observe giant mussels and oysters, and in the equator zone lives the world’s largest bivalve mollusk tridacna, whose mass often reaches 300 or even 400 kilograms.
In the Pacific Ocean, the ultra-abyssal fauna is most clearly represented. In conditions of enormous pressure, low water temperature at a depth of more than 8.5 km, about 45 species live, of which more than 70% are endemic. Among these species, the distribution is dominated by holothurians, leading a very sedentary lifestyle and capable of passing through the digestive tract a huge amount of soil, the only source of food at these depths. Bacteria inhabit the entire water column and the ocean floor. Life develops most abundantly in the shelf zone and especially near the coast at shallow depths, where brown algae flora is diversely represented in the temperate zones of the ocean.
In tropical latitudes, the shallow water zone is characterized by the widespread and strong development of coral reefs, near the shore mangroves. With the advancement from cold zones to tropical zones, the number of species increases sharply, and the density of their distribution decreases. In the Bering Strait, about fifty species of coastal algae macrophytes are known, off the Japanese islands their number can be more than 200, and in the waters of the Malay Archipelago even more over 800.
In the cold and temperate zones of the ocean, with a relatively small number of plant species, due to the mass development of some species, the total biomass greatly increases; in the tropical zones, individual forms do not receive such a sharp predominance, although the number of species is very large.
Summing up, it can be understood that in the high and middle latitudes of both hemispheres there is a massive development of brown algae, especially from the kelp group. Fucus, large green algae and calcareous red algae are common in equatorial-tropical latitudes. The bottom vegetation of the Pacific Ocean is represented by 4 thousand. species, of which about 30 species. Thus, the Pacific Ocean is the most resource-rich ocean.
Natural resources of the Atlantic Ocean
The ocean has always occupied an important place in the life of mankind. The Atlantic has favorable oceanological conditions for the development of life. The ocean is the most prolific per unit area due to its vast shelf zone. In places where warm and cold currents meet, increased productivity is observed. Fish species such as cod, flounder, sea bass live here.
The waters of the North Atlantic are especially rich in life, t. to. they are cold and more oxygenated, which means they are less salty. The most fishy areas are the coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Labrador Island. Nekton is represented by such fish species as tuna, mackerel, salmon, herring, halibut, blue whiting, as well as large fish and mammals (whales, seals, sharks), plankton various algae and krill. Benthos in the Atlantic has a small number.
Titanium, zirconium, amber and phosphorites are mined in coastal areas. The largest deposits are observed off the coast of Florida and Brazil. Near Uruguay, Argentina, Spain, Denmark and Portugal, these natural resources are scarce. Coal, sand, limestone, barite are taken from the bottom. Iron and tin sands are common on the European and North American coasts, and gold, platinum and diamonds are mined in southwestern Africa. Ferromanganese formations are concentrated on the Blake Plateau and in the North American Basin. Some European countries, as well as Canada and Argentina, are engaged in the extraction of magnesium, salt and bromine.
Oil and natural gas are the main mineral resources of the Atlantic Ocean. The largest basins for the extraction of oil and gas raw materials here are: the Gulf of Mexico; maracaibo. The first of these basins is formed by the depression of the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Coast. Its structure is dominated by sedimentary rocks. The most distant deposits are located at a distance of 240 km from the coast of Louisiana. Separately standing wells are 260 km away from the shore. Oil in the outer regions is characterized by lightness and low sulfur content, while in the inner regions it is characterized by high sulfur content and medium density.
Natural gas is produced in Texas, Louisiana and the Bay of Campeche. About 475 oil and gas processing enterprises are located on the territory of the basin. The second indicated basin, the Maracaiba, is located in the northeastern part of Colombia, in the northwestern part of Venezuela and in the Gulf of Venezuela. Its area is about 85 thousand square meters. km. The largest oil field Lama contains about 580 million tons. The key feature of the basin is the predominant oil content. Oil is viscous and heavy. Major recycling centers are located in Punta Cardona and Amuay. In some seas, the Atlantic concentrates mineral resources. In terms of mining, the first place among them is occupied by the northern. Also, underwater oil and gas fields were recorded in the Mediterranean.
Natural resources of the Indian Ocean
The natural wealth of the Indian Ocean has been little studied. Coastal areas abound in fossils. Thus, natural gas and oil were discovered in the Persian Gulf. Explored fields are the leaders of world production. Titanium minerals, phosphates, zirconium found near Ceylon and Mozambique. Off the coast of Australia and India there are deposits of barium and phosphates. Tin and ilmenite studied in Indonesia. Fishing occupies only five percent of the total fishery. Catch tuna, sardines and other animals.
Natural resources of the Arctic Ocean
The ocean is located in the center of the Arctic, surrounded by land on almost all sides, which determines the features of its nature climate, hydrological conditions, ice conditions. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean on Earth.
Bottom sediments of the shelf zone are formed by sediments of rivers. Placer deposits of heavy metals (tin, etc.).). The mineral resources of the Arctic Ocean are still poorly understood. However, the exploitation of oil and gas fields has begun on the shelf, alluvial deposits of heavy metals have been discovered. Harsh natural conditions hinder exploration and development of already discovered mineral deposits. The year-round existence of ice is a characteristic feature of the nature of the ocean. Multi-year ice pack prevails, with a thickness of 2-4 m or more. Every year more ice is formed during the winter than it melts in the summer. Excess ice is carried mainly into the Atlantic Ocean.
In summer, the seas of the ocean near the coasts of the continents are largely freed from ice. The organic world in the ocean is formed by cold-resistant diatoms. They live both in water and on ice. Zoo- and phytoplankton develop in the near-Atlantic sector of the ocean and in coastal waters near the mouths of rivers; characterized by algae growing on the bottom.
Commercial fish (cod, haddock, navaga, halibut, etc.) live on the territory of the ocean and in the seas.), from mammals seals, walruses, beluga whales, polar bears. The predominant part of the water spaces of the Arctic Ocean, due to harsh conditions, is unfavorable for the development of life and is characterized by low productivity. 17 species of marine mammals live in the polar latitudes (harp seal, white whale, narwhal, walrus, some species of whales and dolphins), fish resources form about 150 marine and freshwater species (the most valuable are herring, cod, flounder, salmon, sea bass, pollock , haddock).
Increased fish productivity (100 kg/km2 or more) and the main fishing areas of the Arctic are the Barents and Norwegian Seas, the coastal waters of Iceland, Svalbard and Greenland. The most characteristic feature of fisheries in Arctic waters is a decrease in catch volumes and a change in catch patterns. Until the mid 1960s and early 1970s. cod, saithe, sea bass, halibut, several varieties of herring were caught here. However, intensive fishing has undermined the commercial base of these fish species, and their catches have significantly decreased, and now capelin, bluethroat and polar cod (the main consumer of plankton in the Arctic seas and, in turn, the food of seals, walruses and birds) predominate in the catches.
Industrial fishing in the Arctic seas is carried out by Russia, Norway, Iceland and Greenland. Fishing is export-oriented, a serious problem remains the rational exploitation of fish stocks and licensing of fishing in 200-mile economic zones (Iceland, Greenland).
The main part of the ocean area is located within the Arctic natural belt of the World Ocean. However, the seas of the ocean lie in the northern subpolar zone, and the Norwegian Sea belongs to the temperate zone. The northern polar belt is the deepest and most severe central part of the ocean in terms of climatic and ice conditions. The boundary of this belt coincides approximately with the edge of the shelf. Throughout the year, most of the water area is covered with drifting ice. Characteristic are heaps of ice hummocks, up to 10-12 m high, arising under the influence of currents, winds and tides. Only on the outskirts of the belt live seals, walruses, polar bears. The subarctic belt includes marginal and inland seas adjacent to land. Their nature is less severe.
The oceans play a huge role in human life and our economic activity. Sea water contains a huge amount of minerals, for example, table salt, bromine, potassium and others. In addition, a third of all oil deposits are in the bowels. Among other things, there are many microorganisms in the oceans that are used to make various beneficial bacteria or medicines.
Resources of the World Ocean table
|Type of natural resource||Resource type||a brief description of||Geography of World Ocean Resources|
|exhaustible renewable||Biological||The biological resources of the oceans include all types of fish, marine animals and plants that live and grow in it.||Throughout the oceans, but the most productive are:
– Bering Sea;
– Norwegian Sea;
– Sea of Okhotsk;
– Japanese Sea.
|Land||Use of underwater sites for agriculture.||The entire territory of the oceans|
|Exhaustible non-renewable||mineral||The mineral resources of the World Ocean include various minerals:
– oil reserves;
– gas reserves;
– deposits of diamonds, gold, platinum;
– deposits of tin and titanium ores;
– iron deposits;
– phosphorus deposits;
– non-metallic raw materials;
– reserves of drinking water on the shelf of the World Ocean.
|The main oil and gas fields are concentrated in the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Gulf of Mexico|
|Inexhaustible||Energy resources of the oceans||First of all, we are talking about energy:
– sea and ocean currents;
– energy of ebbs and flows;
– wind energy in oceans and seas;
– wave energy.
|The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Barents Sea, the White Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk, have large tidal energy resources.|
|climatic||Energy of sun. The oceans shape the planet’s climate, ensuring agricultural productivity|
|Geothermal||Geothermal resources can be conditionally referred to as energy resources, since we are talking about the thermal energy potential of water masses, due to the temperature difference in the shallows and in depth.|