Rightwinged insects development, examples of representatives, features

The first straighteners appeared in the Perm period, their age is about 299 million years old. At the moment, there are approximately 24 types of straightwinged insects. Almost all representatives of the detachment inhabit tropics and subtropics. They prefer to live in the steppes and hot deserts, in the pouring meadows.

Types and types of straighteners

Scientists are divided into 2 subdivates: longeyed and shortandeared squad. Shortlinked include 2 submarines locusts and threeperestns. Longlurns can be distinguished by antennas, the length of which is greater than the length of the body. The auditory organ in these insects is on the lower leg. This suburb is included in 2 suprafamily blacksmiths, crickets.

Kuznechikiki features and characteristics

It is easy to calculate the representatives of the blacksmiths: the paws on their legs are 4-member, the eggs of insects are tightly compressed on the sides or greatly curved. The wings of individuals are well developed, sometimes they go by the top of the abdomen. However, when resting the insect, the overlaps are folded, thereby they protect the wings.

Another difference between the Kuznechikovs is the sound apparatus located on the overlap. At the base of the right wing there is a “mirror”, which is a transparent membrane that is surrounded by a vein. There is also a similar membrane on the left overlap, but it is matte and more dense. Vein that surrounds the membrane, thick and it is equipped with teeth. Such a vein is a striduration. It is a bow when a mirror is a resonator. When vocalized, the insect extends the overlap and vibrates with them, during this, the teeth of the stipulating vein rubs on the vein of the “mirror” thanks to this instrument, chirping spreads around the district. Usually only males have a sound apparatus, but some species of female are also owned by them.

The hearing organ at Kuznechikovs is on the front limbs. It consists of membranes that perform the function of drum. In almost all types, they are protected by chitin tires, therefore, only the cracks can be considered outside that lead to the auditory apparatus. Inside the hearing organ there are sensitive cells, muscles and two branches of tracts.

It is difficult to notice an insect in the grass the color of its body is similar to the color of grass and leaves. Insects achieve this by expanding the overlap. A special housing helps, with which the grasshopper is masked either under healthy or for dead leaves. For example, the type of Cycloptera Elegans has brown spots on the wings that imitate the lesion of the fungus.

The grasshoppers differ from other species due to the unusual method of fertilization: the male hangs spermatofor at the end of the abdomen of the future mother. The spermatofor consists of a bottle, which is the main part, and spermatophyx.

A grasshopper male with a sperm

The bottle is protected by a shell on top, and inside it there are two cavities in which spermatozoa are located. During mating, the male inserts the neck of the bottle into the female sexual hole. After the process, the female eats spermatophylax. She does this for a very long time, for these hours the seed fluid flows into the oviduct and after that the female eats the bottle. The process of suspension of sperm plays a huge role. Spermatophilic destroys the possibility of repeated mating of a female.

Eggs are laid in the summer in the summer. Eggs are wintering, they become larvae in the spring. Wings begin to develop after molting. After the 3rd in their life, molting, wings become triangular and veins appear. The wings are formed completely only after the 4th molting.

Kuznechikov family

Kuznechikov’s supranemism includes a family of Rafidophoride, bradyporide, real grasshoppers.

Rafidophorides stand out among the remaining long antennae. These are wingless grasshoppers, they inhabit the tropics. Representatives of the family have large sizes, with the exception of the greenhouse grasshopper, whose body length is 13 mm.

Bradyporids are the inhabitants of the deserts and steppes of Eurasia. Their distinctive feature is the special location of the antennae: they are attached to the head below the eye level. Obrylli in these insects are shortened. A bright representative of bradyporid is a saddlebearer. This species was named so because of the saddler’s front-line, which enhances the sound like a shout.

Representatives of real grasshoppers differ from Rafidophoride in that on the legs of the front extremities they have a hearing organ. One of the bright representatives of this family is a green grasshopper.

Green grasshopper

This is a large insect with narrow overlapes that protect transparent wings. Green grasshopper can be found almost everywhere, he does not like only the northern territories. While in the desert, the insect gravitates only to the valleys of the rivers, and in the forest zone you can meet the grasshopper in the meadows and edges. This representative of the family is similar to a Ussuri green grasshopper. He inhabites broadleaved forests in the Far East.

One of the largest grasshoppers of Eurasia from real grasshoppers is the steppe detachment. The length of the body of the insect is about 6 cm. The capacity can wait hours to wait for its prey while sitting in the grass. She eats locusts.

Crickets features and characteristics

Service can be distinguished from other supranemen because they have threenaval legs and a thin egg, which expands closer to the end. Only the bear has an egg.


Obryllli in representatives of the suprafamily at rest lie so that the right covers the left. Scientists associate this with the special structure of the sound apparatus: the “bow” in insects is on the right overlap, and the “violin” on the left. This device has only males, moreover, there are 6 types of vocalization: recruiting and marriage, chirping after mating, aggressive chirping, vocalization that arose due to the disappearance of the female and “identification” chirping.

Marriage is more common, as it attracts female individual. During a mate, the male hung spermatofor to the belly of the future mother. This organ is similar to the Kuznechikov organ, but there is no spermatofilax. A couple of days after mating, the female lays eggs. After 30 days, crickets are hatched, which are practically copies of the Imago. After the 2nd molting, they dig small pits. Before winter comes, crickets are fed several more times. The final molting occurs in the spring, after it the crickets completely ripen.

Senchkov family

The supermine of the Sverchkovs is the family Gryllidae, Oecanthidae, Myrmecophilidae Gryllotalpidae.

Most species belong to the family of crickets. A bright representative of this taxon is a field cricket that inhabit Central Asia and Africa.

Field cricket

The length of the body of the insect varies from 2 to 2.6 cm. The color of the cricket is black. Quite common and house cricket. The length of his body varies from 1, 6 cm to 2 cm. The body of the insect is straw foul. Like many crickets, he leads a night lifestyle.

The stem cricket (or trumpeter) from the Oecanthidae family is quite peculiar. His body is quite tender, painted in yellow. These insects inhabit steppes and deserts, are found in the Ussuri Territory.

Steel cricket

Interesting for insect study is an ordinary muravnut cricket from the Myrmecophilidae family. They have no wings, the length of their trunk is 2 mm. Females of the species can multiply in the partogenetic way.

Muravolb cricket

Absolutely unique insects are the bear. They are easy to distinguish by a large aperture and small antennae. The altered antennages of the insect are perfectly digging the earth. The length of the bear’s body is only 3-5 cm, it is painted brown. In the reproduction season, insects create underground passages where uterine chambers are arranged.

Shortandlee features and characteristics

Shortlinked small antennas that do not exceed the length of the body. The paws of the hind limbs are always three. An important difference is a short egg.

Family of shortsized

Crimelysophisticated representatives of the family are real locusts, jumpers and threeaperture, eumastacids, pamphagides and pyrgomorphides.

Representatives of the threeaperture small insects, the length of their trunk ranges from 4 to 9 mm. Their legs are well adapted to digging. A feature of these insects are clear antennae, which consist of dozens of segments.

The trigepers do not have a hearing aid, the females have no egg. A typical representative is an ordinary threeperst.  The insect has a flattened body, which is painted in golden brown color. Its length is about 5 mm. The insect inhabit the steppes of Eurasia, widespread in Belarus.

Representatives of real locusts are insects whose sound devices are located on the uppers and hips of the hind limbs. This family includes a migratory locust. The view is presented in 2 phases: single and herd. The single phase of locusts is called “a mare”. Representatives of the singlespinning adverse have saddle, and the overlaps are longer than that of the herd phase. The color of the insect is yellowish-green, there are many dark spots on the body. In locust, sexual dimorphism is expressed in size: the body length of males ranges from 35 to 50 mm, in females this indicator is usually 55 mm. The insect inhabit Japan, Iran, China and France.

Jumpers are the smallest insects from the supranemium. Their bodies are painted in dark colors, to better merge with the ground, the auspices are extended. Separate species can multiply several times a year. Typical representative subtle jumping jacket. Its color is usually gray or brown. He loves wet meadows and forest glades.

Eumastacids insects inhabiting the territories of tropics. The length of their trunk ranges from 1 to 2 cm. They do not shake. Bright representative Phytomastax Robusta. Inhabit Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Prefers to settle on the mountain slopes.

Phytomastax Robusta

The pampagid family includes large insects whose external covers have a rough structure. They are common in Africa and deserts of Europe and Asia.

Pyrgorphids a family prevailing in tropical regions. Individuals have a conical head. Typical insect of the family desert pyrgoform. The insect lives on the territory of Transcaucasia and Kazakhstan. The length of its body varies from 1, 5 cm to 2. Pirgomorphs have muddy antennae and a crown that looks like a duck nose due to the fact that it protrudes forward. The insect is represented in 2 morons: green and grayish.


Representatives of the straighteners are distinguished by the presence of a gnawing rotary apparatus, fanshaped hind wings and welldeveloped hind legs that serve to make jumps. All overlapping have 2 facet eyes. Single eyes usually 1-3.

The structure of straightwinged insects


Insects from the squad of straighteners are incomplete transformation. In this detachment there is no insects with complete metamorphosis.

The development of straightwinged insects


Almost all representatives of the Right Wing detachment feed on plant parts. However, crickets are omnivorous, although the basis of the diet is food of plant origin. Some locusts eat rainworms, dragonflies.

Incomplete transformation

Such development suggests that the insect when leaving the egg has a similar structure with the imago, but the size of such an individual is much smaller. Thanks to the intensive set, the insect grows a mass, but the chitinous cover does not allow the volume of the body of the body. Then the individual is sinking, the cover is dropped. Now the soft cuticle remaining after the molting is straightening. Then the insect undergoes a few more lines, but the doll does not form. After 46 leine, the individual becomes mature, she has fully formed wings.

Complete transformation

There are no insects that undergo complete metamorphosis in the expanded detachment.


Rightwinged an important link in the power chain. They are firstorder consumers, feed on plants, thereby translating minerals and other beneficial compounds up the food chain.

Rightwinged pests

Many representatives of the detachment harm the crops of agricultural crops such as corn and cucumbers, potatoes. So, locusts can destroy the fields in a short time. Herds fly 100 km per day to get a treat.

In addition to all types of locusts, hazardous pests include bear and Italian Prussia. Medved women love to bite root crops, sometimes several insects reduce the crop half. Another dangerous straight winged is a green grasshopper that gnaws grape kidneys, eats flowers. He harms him not only grapes, but also oranges with lemons.

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