River Bobra from the Red Book description and appearance, what eats and where it lives

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This is an animal that belongs to the class of mammals, the rodent detachment and the Bobrov family (West Siberian subspecies). This is the largest rodent of the KhantyMans.

Appearance

The mass of the body of the animal is 19 kg, and the length is 100-106 cm. The length of the beaver head is about 16 cm, the body is from 60 to 65. Muzzle mammal is narrow, small eyes. One of the features of the rodent is the presence of two incisors.

The teeth of the mammal grow throughout life, they are selfadjusted. The beaver has a long 25-centimeter tail, whose width is slightly more than 10 cm. It improves maneuverability in water. Animal paws are fivefingered, clawed claws. The hind limbs are better developed by the front. The foot of an adult individual is small its length is 130 mm.

Brown rodent fur, but sometimes individuals are found with a light brown shirt. Animals often comb the fur with the help of hind legs, on which bifurcated claws grow. During this procedure, a secret begins to stand out, which makes the fur waterproof.

Additional protection is the subcutaneous fat of the beaver. Sometimes old river beavers have white spots on the hind legs. Recently conducted studies have proved that the immune system of mammals is quite strong, which helps to adapt to the environment.

Sexual dimorphism is expressed in size: females larger.

Red Book

This subspecies is listed in the Red Books of Eurasia: in the Tyumen and Omsk, KhantyMansi Autonomous Okrug as a subspecies, which is under threat of complete extinction. The population is reduced due to deforestation, the activities of poachers.

Where it lives

River Beaver inhabit the basin of the Konda River and Malaya Sosva. Small populations can be found on the Yerkal-Nade-Pur River and in the upper Yugan. This mammal inhabit the darkhaired taiga, which is located on the West Siberian Plain. River beaver populates reservoirs, next to which are birch groves. The ideal option for animals is birch on one side of the reservoir and boron on the other. In such places it is convenient to create holes for wintering.

What eats

This species does not eat meat. In animals, the need for water is great, they eat shoots and the bark of trees, such as birch and aspen, willow and poplar. However, animals prefer “soft” trees, but oral oak and Olkha are often used to create dwellings. River beavers of the West Siberian subspecies eat and reeds with sedge. Their diet includes more than 300 water and ground plants. Mammals eat and acorns. In the summer they are already starting to harvest food for the winter. Feed resources are distributed unevenly, because the family usually occupies several km of the river bed.

Enemies

Natural enemies of the West Siberian river beavers bears (mainly brown) and wolves, lynx and wolverine, foxes. Pikes with ejectors can also attack young. The enemies of river beavers are also a hare-a rusak with moose, they often have conflicts due to a lack of food. Wandering dogs also attack these animals.

Brown Bear the enemy of the river beaver

Interesting Facts

  1. River beavers live from 15 to 17 years old.
  2. Beavers are constantly growing.
  3. The fur of this mammal consists of outer hair and a soft gun. This helps to survive in severe frosts.
  4. The tail of the river beaver is flat, it is covered with horny plates. In the middle of this part of the body there is a “keel” of horn plates.
  5. This mammal has a calm character. In dangerous situations, the Beaver is fleeing, only occasionally enters into a fight.
  6. The animal can be under water for about 15 minutes. When immersing the ears and nose, the partition covers. A transparent film appears in the eyes.
  7. Bobr can swim more than 1 km.
  8. This rodent is clean, there is no garbage in its hole.
  9. The perfumes actively use the “stream” of this subspecies.
  10. Bobra place tree branches in water so as to always have access to them. So they will be provided with food, even if the reservoir freezes in winter.
  11. “At home” animals hide, build them in the most inaccessible places. These dwellings are always located next to the river, whose course is slow.
  12. Sometimes beavers harm people harm. Their dams can contribute to flooding of agricultural vehicles, erosion of the railway.
  13. These mammals communicate with poses, blows on water and screams with a whistle. During communication, they let each other know about the appearance of danger.
  14. River beaver does not live next to reservoirs that may freeze to the bottom. They can only be found next to thick vegetation.
  15. On land this animal is slow, its reaction rate is small.
  16. River Beaver is the only rodent that can move on all 4 limbs and on the hind legs (Bobr can wear materials for construction in them)
  17. These mammals do not depart from the river bank more than 200 meters.

Lifestyle

River beavers live in burrows or halfbells, they hardly build dams. They warm their home with clay and branches. The entrance to this place is always under water. They spend all day at home and only closer to twilight go out to get food. The teeth of these animals are very sharp: in half an hour the beaver can gnaw a tree trunk.

River beavers can live both by one and families. Matriarchy reigns in the cell of society. Animals are monogamous, they create very strong pairs. Even if the partner died, the second will not create a new family.

Rodents propagate from February to April, mate mainly in March. 3-3.5 months after mating, cubs are born. In the offspring of animals usually from 1 to 5 cubs. After birth, the mother feeds them with milk all summer. In winter, offspring feeds on parents’ blanks.

The puberty in these rodents occurs already at 3 years. In one family there are both oneyearold and twoyearold Bobesat. In summer, young animals are 26%, and adult river beavers more than 30%. Migrations aimed at searching for comfortable conditions are performed only by two or three-year mammals.

Bobra protection

Earlier, the population of the river beavers of the West Siberian subspecies maintained a special attitude towards them the peoples of Khanty and Mansi. Animals were bred in a condo-Sosvinsky reserve. Now these animals are guarded in Malaya Sosva and in Verkhne-Kondinsky. To preserve the population, you should expand the habitat of animals and resettle in Siberia.

The issue of genetic “purity” of the population is more acute due to the expansion of river beavers of other origin in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. To ensure the safety of the gene pool of this subspecies, it is necessary to allow hunting on East European beavers and hybrids between these two subspecies. In the area of ​​the Konda River basin and in Nizhnevartovsky, you should definitely open a hunt for beaver in order to prevent mixing with individuals from Tomsk.

Limiting factors

One of the most important limiting factors is the hydrological regime of reservoirs: the water level often changes, therefore, the houses of beavers are flooded. There is a huge zone of hybridization in the Konda basin.

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