Zones with seismic activity, where earthquakes most often occur, are called seismic belts. In this place, increased mobility of lithospheric plates is observed, which is the cause of volcanoes activity. Scientists argue that 95% of earthquakes occur precisely in special seismic zones.
There are two huge seismic belts on Earth, which spread thousands of kilometers along the bottom of the ocean and land. This is a meridional Pacific and latitudinal Mediterranean-Transiac.
The Pacific latitudinal belt encircles the Pacific Ocean to Indonesia. Over 80% of all earthquakes of the planet occurs in its zone. This belt passes through the Aleutian Island, covers the western coast of America, both northern and southern, reaches the Japanese islands and New Guinea. The Pacific belt has four branches the western, northern, eastern and southern. The latter is not well studied. In these places, seismic activity is felt, which subsequently leads to natural cataclysms.
The eastern part is considered the largest in this belt. It begins in Kamchatka, and ends with the South Antilian loop. In the northern part, constant seismic activity is observed, from which residents of California and other regions of America suffer.
The beginning of this seismic belt in the Mediterranean Sea. It passes through the mountain ranges of southern Europe, through North Africa and Asia Minor, reaches the Himalayan mountains. In this belt, the most active areas are as follows:
As for underwater activity, it is recorded in the Indian and Atlantic oceans, reaches the southwest of Antarctica. The North Arctic Ocean also falls into the seismic belt.
Scientists gave the name of the Mediterranean-Transiac belt “latitudinal”, as it stretches parallel to the equator.
Seismic waves are streams that come from an artificial explosion or earthquake source. Body waves are powerful and move underground, but vibrations are felt on the surface as well. They are very fast and move in gaseous, liquid and solid media. Their activity somewhat resembles sound waves. Among them there are transverse waves or secondary ones, which have a slightly slow motion.
Surface waves are active on the surface of the earth’s crust. Their movement resembles the movement of waves on water. They have destructive power, and the vibrations from their action are well felt. Among the surface waves, there are especially destructive ones that are capable of pushing rocks apart.
Thus, there are seismic zones on the surface of the earth. According to the nature of their location, scientists have identified two belts the Pacific and the Mediterranean-Trans-Asian. The most seismically active points are highlighted in the places of their run, where volcanoes and earthquake eruptions very often occur.
Minor seismic belts
The main seismic belts are Pacific and Mediterranean-Transiac. They encircle the significant territory of the land of our planet, have a long length. However, one must not forget about such a phenomenon as secondary seismic belts. Three such zones can be distinguished:
Due to the movement of lithospheric plates in these zones, phenomena such as earthquakes, tsunami and floods occur. In this regard, nearby territories continents and islands are subject to natural disasters.
So, if seismic activity is practically not felt in some regions, in others it can reach high rates on the Richter scale. The most sensitive zones, as a rule, are under water. In the course of research, it was found that the eastern part of the planet most contains secondary belts. The beginning of the belt is taken from the Philippines and descend to Antarctica.
Seismic region in the Atlantic Ocean
The seismic zone in the Atlantic Ocean was discovered by scientists in 1950. This area begins from the shores of Greenland, passes nearby with the Mid-Atlantic Underwater Range, ends in the area of the Tristan-da-Kuna archipelago. Seismic activity here is explained by the young faults of the middle ridge, since the movements of lithospheric plates are still continuing here.
Seismic activity of the Indian Ocean
The seismic strip in the Indian Ocean extends from the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and practically reaches Antarctica. The seismic region is associated with the median Indian ridge. There are nonsense earthquakes and eruptions of volcanoes under water, the foci are not deeply located. This is due to several tectonic faults.
Seismic belts are located in a close relationship with the relief, which is under water. While one belt is located in the region of East Africa, the second stretches to the Mozambique Channel. Oceanic basins are aseismic.
Seismic zone of the Arctic
Seismicity observed in the Arctic zone. Earthquakes, eruptions of mud volcanoes, as well as various destructive processes occur here. Experts monitor the main sources of earthquakes in the region. Some people believe that very low seismic activity occurs here, but this is not true. When planning any activity here, you always need to stay alert and be prepared for various seismic events.
Seismicity in the Arctic Basin is explained by the presence of the Lomonosov Ridge, which is a continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In addition, the regions of the Arctic are characterized by earthquakes that occur on the continental slope of Eurasia, sometimes in North America.