Serna (lat. Rupicapra rupicapra) a wild goat, mammal of a greenhouse animal of the genus genus. Is its smallest representative. The name of the animal translated from the Latin language means “rocky goat”. So it is, the ssans are perfect in the rocky areas.
Distinguish between several subspecies of a sulfur, characterized by various appearance and anatomical features. Some scientists argue that the subspecies of wild goats do not cross due to habitat in different territories and distinctive origin.
In the summer, the sulfur is “dressed” in a red-brown fur flowing into a bright red-yellow tint on the belly. The back is covered with black-brown stripes and a yellowish-white color on a long neck. The limbs are painted in the back in the white, and the lower side and tip of the tail are black.
The dark brown “fur coat” on the back and white belly are inherent in animals in the winter. Also in winter, the sulfur limbs and head are covered with yellow-white fur.
Sses are considered small animals, predominant dense body with slender limbs, where the front legs are shorter than the rear legs. At the same time, a wild goat is a powerful animal, despite the compact size. They have long slender limbs ending with flat hooves.
A short muzzle on a slender neck with sharp long ears and horns with a shape extended back the main signs of a sulfur. The horns of a large individual may exceed 25 cm. Adult ssans weigh about 25-30 kg.
Behind the horns there is a small hole, which during the ruts emits a mucous, unpleasant odor of a secret.
The character of animals and habitat
Sses tend to live herds. These are cowardly and quick animals that hide in the mountains or run into the forest at the slightest danger. The characteristics of the animal include the ability to jump over high distances, because the greenhouses are perfectly sensed in mountain conditions. Here they find places for shelters in recesses and crevices.
The habitat of the chamois passes mainly on rocky steeps, also the greenhouses choose cliffs, near the fir and spruce forests, birch groves. Feel especially well, inhibited in coniferous thickets. Often go down to meadows in search of food.
The subspecies of the Koziy family prefer to live far from snowy places and glaciers, they are able to rise to a height of up to 3 km in search of the best places. They are easy enough to track down, since they are adapted to appear at the same time in the same place the seas are quickly attached to the area in which they live.
Participated confidence is given by a grouping of several individuals. The maximum amount of sulfur in the herd can reach hundreds. In winter and spring, greenhouse, as a rule, are collected in small groups, which allows them to survive the cold and find food. In summer, the number increases new individuals are born.
It is interesting that the seas find their ways to communicate among themselves grow, use various views. The most daring chamos are able to subjugate the will of weak individuals. Animals have mixed herds, since adult individuals do not separate from young.
The usual animal day is arranged as follows: the first half takes place in a long meal, the second rest. Moreover, sulfur is caution, so they rest in turn, there is always one individual for observation. In case of danger, the animal raises the alarm and the herd scatters.
In winter, animals have to constantly move to find food and find the best place to cover. Usually they descend closer to the forests, where you can hide from the winds and find dry food remnants.
Nutrition of wild goats
These are herbivores feeding on young foliage and shoots, plants, flowers and occasionally with cereal crops. Wild goats are not picky for water, they can easily do without it, getting moisture from greenery they lick dew from the grass.
Due to the light search for food in the summer, the chamas do not have to move and look for a place filled with food. They can stay in one place and enjoy grass, shrubs. That is why they choose places close to groves and forests.
Salt has an important role for the greenhouses they are constantly looking for different salt shares.
It is more difficult to survive animals in winter, especially if the period is snowy. At this time, the chamois feed on dry branches, dry grass and leaves if it is possible to get to them. They also do not disdain moss, soft bark of trees and needles.
Propagation and offspring
Under natural conditions, cses live about 10-12 years old. As a rule, females live longer than males. Sexual maturity of the Serna occurs closer to the age of two, the reproduction occurs at the age of three.
Participable ruts have been coming from the beginning of November and lasts until midDecember. During this period, males join herds of females and fight for seniority. It turns into cruel fights. The beginning of the fight consists in walking in a circle the males viciously look at each other. Then they face the forehead, which sometimes leads to serious injuries.
The winner searches the female ready for mating, approaches her from behind, driving with hooves.
Pregnancy of females lasts up to six months. In late spring, closer to the beginning of summer, cubs are born. During childbirth, females go into dense pine thickets.
As a rule, one cub is born, two descendants are extremely rarely born. They immediately jump on their legs and after a few hours follow their mother. After childbirth, females try to avoid open areas, go to their herds only when the cubs begin to run along the rocks.
After birth, small kids are very attached to their parents, the first six months they take care of them. Serna-mother feeds the cub milk for three months. By the fourth month, the legs grow in the goat, but a characteristic bend is acquired only by the age of two years.
Natural enemies of wild goats
Relatives of goats are considered cowardly animals, because most of the predators pose a great danger to them. Swings are not slopes to battle with the enemy, therefore often die. The most dangerous for the parttime are the wolf and the bear, also lynx, fox and even golden eagle eagles that can capture a small individual or goat with their tenacious claws.
Sses do not protect anyone from their herd if they attacked one individual, the rest run away, looking around if a predator is chasing them. Despite the long and strong horns, as well as powerful hooves, the sulfur cannot withstand the enemy.
Some interesting facts are known about the ceses. For example, today there are about 2100 Caucasian individuals in the northwest of the Caucasus. Most sulfur lives on the territory of the reserves.
It is also worth knowing:
Sses are animals that can communicate, take care of their cubs, but are not able to take care of themselves. Due to their cowardice and frequent accumulation, greenhouses get sick from infections or become prey of predators.