Siberian Uglozub (Lat. Salamandrella Keyserlingii) is an amphibian that belongs to the detachment of the tailed and the family of the corner.
The body of the amphibian is small, its length is 7 cm. The head is as if flattened, the eyes are bulging. Parotid glands are very noticeable. The tail is large, compressed on the sides. The skin is shiny and quite smooth, because the glands distinguish a substance similar to glycerin. The angle is painted in brown or black. There is an almost white strip on the back, there are dark spots next to it. On the head the strip is wider. There are about 13 grooves on each side. Sexual dimorphism is not expressed in any way.
Where it lives
Uglozub is found in Eurasia, from Arkhangelsk to the Nizhny Novgorod region. E amphibian inhabit Sakhalin and Siberia. This amphibian also inhabits Mongolia, where it prefers foresttundra and park zones. The angle can withstand very low temperatures, therefore it also occurs behind the polar circle. Some populations are located in the Komi Republic, on the territory of both the Tyumen and Chelyabinsk region. It is also found in the Sverdlovsk region, but not in foreststeppe territories.
E amphibian lunch only at night. The angular can look for food both in water and on Earth. These amphibians have excellent vision and therefore they easily distinguish between motionless edible objects. When frogs are able to see only moving goals. Under conditions of terrarium, the angle is fed with meat or eggs. In the will, the amphibian eats invertebrates: mollusks and spiders, crustaceans and insect larvae.
The propagation period begins in April-May. It occurs near roadside ditches, lowland swamps and temporary puddles.
At the beginning of the wedding period, the males of amphibians appear on the tail, a groove appears remotely similar to the crests of newtons. But this is not the only weapon of the male. He also performs dance, holding on to the twig by the water. The angular begins to wag its tail and swing. When a male is approaching him, he immediately grabs her with the help of his tail and holds his teeth. Then the future mother lays eggs. The male helps her to pull the eggs out of the bag. Individuals are usually held in groups during this period, only about 10 amphibians can be in only 1 m2. At the beginning of laying the eggs, the female attaches them to the sedge, if the reservoir is natural and to the willow branch, if anthropogenic. The masonry is 2 bags that are twisted for 3 turns. Its length varies from 50 to 60 mm. In one bag, there can be, both 30 and 100 eggs. In the sunlight, the masonry looks blue, but after swelling of the caviar, this effect disappears.
After about 20-60 days, larvae begin to appear. But this can drag on due to bad conditions. E amphibians choose very cold ponds that are almost devoid of light, because the embryos can develop for so long. These kids can already withstand serious cold, masonry can even freeze in the ice and this will not stop the development of the carriers. But a long stay in such conditions slows down the process. However, reservoirs with a temperature of about + 20 ° C are also poorly affected by embryogenesis.
At first, the hatching grunts live on the nearest plants or the remnants of the masonry. The length of the body of the kids is approximately 10 mm. External gills serve as a respiratory organ. The tails are already clearly visible in the larvae, it is the largest part of their body. Soon, amphibians begin to “hunt” on plankton, and then they catch small squids and bugs. The larval period takes about 40 days, after which metamorphosis occurs. Front and hind legs begin to appear. Gills increase in size, and then completely disappear. Further, the hind limbs become more developed, the rudiments of the fins are reduced.
These amphibians have a huge number of enemies. Mollusks and fish willingly eat their larvae and eggs. Poultry hunts, mammals, are hunting for sex. Only the dark color saves amphibians from death.
Siberian carpet is inactive and slow. Even if his whereabouts were opened, he is in no hurry to hide. Only during the propagation period, amphibians are active around the clock. In water, the Uglozubs feel at ease.
Earthovodes are often hidden under the bumps and under the old stumps, in cracks under the bark of young trees. Such places appear in fallen trees, which are overgrown with moss. E amphibians leave such shelters very rarely.
This species is poorly understood. Siberian Uglozub was included in the Red Book of the Chelyabinsk and Tyumen Region, the Republic of Komi.
In Yekaterinburg and the surroundings equal to 80 individuals per 1 ha. The number of all populations of the Sverdlovsk region is 25 thousand amphibians. In some forestpark zones, the number is higher than in rural areas. However, the total number of amphibians Yekaterinburg has declined by 16 times over the past 4 decades.
This happened due to the creation of artificial light sources in cities, fever and rather low humidity. An important role in the disappearance of the species is also played by pollution of water bodies with waste of the chemical industry.
The view was included in the application to the Berne Convention. Uglozub is guarded in the reserve “Monokin Stone”. Individuals are prohibited to catch for collecting and for future sale.
Wintering begins in September October, they “wake up” already in April. Wintering takes place at a distance of 50 m from a water source. These amphibians spend the winter in the soil, right in the rhizomes of trees.