About 110 million years ago, in the Cretaceous era, the first plants of the class of oneday class began to appear on Earth. Many experts in botany still argue which class has become fundamental for flowering plants. To date, 70 family class families are known, which combine more than 60 thousand different species of plants. Two times more than twice as much. Almost a quarter of all flowering plants of the class of onedimensional belongs to flower representatives.
- Types and structure of monocial plants
- Family of onedimensional plants
- Signs and features of monocial plants
- The structure of monocial plants
- Lugging of leaves of monocular plants
- Propagation, development, pollination
- Fruits, stem and root of monocular plants
- Functions and role (meaning) of monocial plants in nature
Types and structure of monocial plants
Single plants originate from primitive dicotyledonous ones, which were distinguished by offsider, apocarp ginets and singlebearded pollen grains.
Classification of monocial plants occurs according to the APG system, which is based on ribosomal and two chlorobelated genes.
At the moment, 3 forms of classification have been developed, which are designed to most accurately reflect all the relationships between plants. Traditionally, oneday is divided into 5 orders that reflect the morphological similarities of groups. These include:
The most significant families of the class of onedimensional: orchid, cereal, sedge, palm trees, aroid, lily, ginger, palm. Consider each family in more detail.
Family of onedimensional plants
Liley is a family that belongs to the order. It is represented by a large number of perennial herbs with rhizomes, bulbs and corms. There are also tree species of plants. At the moment, the family includes about 1300 species that are united in 45 genera. The stems are olive, in some plants they are localized in the basal zone. They differ in an integral structure. The flowers can be both large and small. Most often miserable and threemember. The perianth is simple and has a bowlshaped shape. There are about 6 stamens in the flower, less often three or twelve. Pestle alone. The fetus can be a box or berry. Endosperm is located in the seeds.
All lily plants are connected according to the general plan of the structure of the flower. However, some plants have deviations. Most often the details of the structure are diverse. In some of the plants, the perianth can have a separate, and in the second one a fuel leaves.
Examples of lily plants
Representatives of lily in tropics and subtropics are found. The stem is powerful and tree. In many plants, shoots are differentiated into suction cups, antennae or hookshaped grows.
Representatives of the Osokov family belong to the department of covered or flowering plants. This family includes about 3,800 species of plants that are combined in 100 genera. These plants are found everywhere. The largest variety of species is observed in the territory of moderate latitudes and in areas with a predominantly cold climate. It is tending to form thickets along the coastal fresh reservoirs to plants of this family.
Sizes of the sedge vary greatly. There are views with a height of a couple of centimeters to several meters. Life forms are represented by perennial herbaceous plants, sometimes annuals. In the tropics, you can find tree plants of the family. Distinguishes the sedge of the underground rhizomes, which can be a short vertical or long horizontal. The stems are most often trihedral, but there are also cylindrical. They may have nodes that come closer to the base. Elongated internodes develop exclusively in generative shoots. The leaves are threerow and hard. They cover the stem, forming the tubes. There are plants in which the leaves are located evenly along the stem or concentrate to the base. The flowers are very small and invisible. Pollinated by wind. Plants are found both with bisexual and samesex flowers. As a rule, they are located one by one in the sinuses of the governing scales and are part of the spikelets. Many species are distinguished by a solitary location.
Examples of sedge plants
The cereal family differs its size. There are about 11,000 species that are united in 900 genera. On the territory of Eurasia, cereals are found in the amount of 146 genera and 1000 species. Plants of this family are considered one of the most important in economic terms. Various types of cereals spread throughout the globe. One type can be found even in Antarctica. Life forms are different: perennial and annual herbs, shrubs and trees.
Distinguish two forms of cereal winter and spring. Spring plants include those that are sown in the spring, and over the summer they pass the entire development cycle, forming a fullfledged crop closer to the fall. Winter plants are sown autumn and germinate until winter. In the spring, they continue their development cycle, giving crop a little earlier than spring.
The root system of cereal plants is characterized by the early dying of the main root system and its replacement with stalking subordinate roots that occur in the nodes of the zone of the nipination under the surface of the soil, as well as over it. The stem of cereals by a cylindrical shape and a joint structure. In some plants, the stem begins to become sick. In particular, this applies to bamboo. The leaves of cereal plants are very narrow and are located in two rows. They have linear or lanceolate plates. The flowers are quite small and most often bisexual. Many cereal flower has 2 flower scales and 2 flower films. It most often finds 3 stamens, but it can be 1.2 or 6. The bamboo has their number reaches 120. Pestle one with two sitting furry stigmas.
Examples of cereal plants
Orchids are a rather large family, which includes about 25 thousand species, united in 750 genera. These plants are distinguished by their decorative appearance and a wide variety of flowers. They spread widely in almost all lands suitable for habitat of plants. The greatest species diversity is found in tropical latitudes. Orchids grow almost everywhere, starting from the slopes of the highest mountains, and ending with forest plains, swamps and dry steppes. A large number of plants grow in wet mountain forests. In temperate latitudes, orchids are represented by ground herbs with an underground rhizome and tubers.
Orchid plant plants have many common structural features that distinguish them from other families. The roots are subordinate and covered with spongy fabric, which is formed as a result of frequent cell divisions of the epidermis. Due to the presence of air in cells, this protective cover is painted in a white or grayish tint. Green-blue algae is sometimes found in Velamen. The roots of both ground and epiphytic orchids are thickened and modified due to the development of water. Orchid flowers are gathered in a brush or spike, but there are views with a single arrangement of flowers. Tricky flowers have a double perianth, and the cups in shape and size practically do not differ from each other. The middle petal forms a kind of lip into which nectar enters. Orchid flowering period can be delayed for several months. The fetus can be a box with sash or berry. Distribution occurs by wind.
Examples of plants of the orchid family
Ginger family includes about 1000 species united in 40 genera. Most often they are found in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa and America. Widely used as food plants, decorative and medicinal. Ginger alone has about 90 species. The most common life form is perennial herbs.
The rhizome of ginger plants is very long and creeping with the presence of nodes. Everground stems are unstable and very short. The leaves are located in two rows. Are attached closer to the base of the stem. In some plants, the leaves consist of a long split vagina, sometimes with a tongue at the top, and in another part from a petiole and an expanded vagina. Flowers are collected in inflorescences with bright and covering leaves. They are located on the tops of the stem. The flowers themselves are bisexual and wrong. The perianth is double and consists of a whisk with a cup. The cup has three small and green leaves. The whisk consists of three petals that fuse to the base in a long tube. The fetus is represented by a leathery box with three sashes or berry. The seeds are round
Examples of the family ginger
The aroid family includes about 2000 different plants, which make up more than 100 genera. They spread widely in territories with tropical, subtropical and moderate climate. Found on both hemispheres of the Earth. Most of the species are represented by tropical plants, shrubs, vines and erect plants are also found. Some species contain poisonous milky juice.
This family is distinguished by a unique coloring of leaves with faster inflorescences. The cob itself is represented by a large number of small flowers, which generally have the appearance of one single flower. The size of the inflorescence fluctuates from small to very large. Aroid plants have a characteristic dense bedspread that hides the cob. However, in some plants it is widely bent. Anturium and some other species of aroid plants are characterized by a colored bedspread or the presence of wings of white, pink, red and another color. There are representatives that are characterized by an unpleasant odor that attracts flies and other insects for pollination. The leaves are located alternately, the base of the petiole covers the stem. Some plants of the family have rather large leaves with a metallic gloss or velvety surface. The shape of the leaves is heartshaped or arrowshaped.
Examples of aroid plants
Palm family are most often represented by treelike plants, which are divided into 185 genera, which include about 3.5 thousand different palm trees. Most often they grow in tropics and subtropics. The largest number of species is found in Madagascar and Colombia.
The barrel of palm plants is columnshaped and not branching. In thickness, some species can reach one meter, and in height from 55 to 60 meters. There are also packed species and vines that reach thickness from 2 to 3 centimeters. Vines are quite often used for the manufacture of rattan furniture. They can reach a length of 300 or more meters. The leaves of representatives of the Palm family periysty or fan, as well as divided into segments. Fruits can be completely different shapes. They are usually round, elliptical or nutty. The most common cultivated plants are date and coconut.
Signs and features of monocial plants
Singlelike plants differ from the rest of the representatives of flowering in a number of signs:
The above signs are not universal for each plant. There are some representatives of singleday plants who have two cotyledons, as among the twoday there are views with one cotyledon.
The structure of monocial plants
The root system, as mentioned above, is always a honeycomb. There may be modifications of underground shoots depending on the type of plant. The stem is erect and not branched. Most plants grow in length, but not in thickness, due to the lack of cambium. Conducting bundles are random. The leaves are simple, sitting, linear, lanceolate or narrow. There are plants with fleshy leaves. Straps, as a rule, are absent. The cereal family is distinguished by the presence of a sheet vagina, which covers the stem. Housing can be arc or parallel. The inflorescence is represented by a single flower or brush, colossus, ears, panicle. The flower is most often bolted, less often onesex. Perianth simple without cups. The number of parts of the flower is a multiple of three. There is only one pestle. The fetus can be a box, grain, berry and nut. Semen of monodol plants most often quite small sizes.
Lugging of leaves of monocular plants
The leaves are parallel or arc adural. For differentiation of monodol plants, it is not enough to be guided only by a sign of leaf housing, since it is not universal and may be erroneous if other criteria are not connected to interpretation. Plant veins are often compared with the circulatory system, since they supply the sheet with salts and water, removing assimilation products. They can be of two types: sieve tubes or vessels.
Propagation, development, pollination
Plants of a class of monodols are most often pollinated by various insects. The propagation method may vary depending on the family under consideration. For example, lily plants can propagate with seeds, bulbs and broody buds represented by small bulbs. In the family, cereals are widely represented by vegetative propagation by rhizomes or their parts, which are rooted in the nodes with elevated shoots and brood buds formed in spikelets. For pollination, some plants spread a special aroma that attracts various insects.
Fruits, stem and root of monocular plants
The stems of such plants are quite rarely branched, and stem vascular bundles are closed. The main root of monodol plants is underdeveloped, its function is quite often performed by the system of subordinate roots. The fruits of monodol plants can be in the form of a box or berry.
Functions and role (meaning) of monocial plants in nature
Distinguish between wild and cultural plant species. The largest part of the cereal family belongs to commercial species, however, weeds are also found among them. Many species of plants perform a decorative function. Among the monodols, medicinal plants are also common, from which there are toxic.
Cereals play a large role in the formation of the vegetation of the planet, most often these are bread and cereal crops. Many plants are fodder. The green mass of most plants is a valuable feed for animals.