Smallleaved forests are called those forests in which smallleaved rocks prevail. The main ones are birches, aspen, gray alder. The lower tier consists of a variety of representatives of sedge and flowering: chamomile, buttercup and others. All of them have a small sheet plate and loose bark. There are smallleaved forests in the European and Asian part of Eurasia. The most common are birch trees that occupy about 25 percent of the European part and 12 percent of the Asian. Osinniki have a slightly smaller area: 5.4 and 2.2 percent, respectively. The main distinguishing feature of smallleaved forests is that their prevailing part is derivatives of forests.
Plants of smallleaved forests
The birch is dudden
Birch is fluffy
The bird cherry is ordinary
The heather is ordinary
The honeysuckle is ordinary
The bell is roundleaved
Lyubka is twoleafed
Weinik is terrestrial
Birch bark warty
Smallleaved forests appear on cuts and bark bars or broadleaved forests. They can also occur in the places of windbreaks and on unused agricultural land. Smallleaved rocks are resumed using two ways: vegetative and seed. For example, birch spreads through PNA shoots, aspen and gray alder root offspring and stumped shoots.
On the territory of the treeless lands, smallleaved forests are formed by seed. Small-leaved breeds are the first to arise on the cuts, which is why they received the name “Pioneers”. Very rapid growth of autonomic shoots allows smallleaved rocks to spread at high speed, preventing the restoration of indigenous conifers and broadleaved rocks. Quite often spreading smallleaved forests are replaced by indigenous forests. The process of succession during cutting is significantly accelerated.
Under appropriate climatic and soil conditions, birch trees and aspeners can become indigenous types of forest. For example, indigenous plantations from fluffy birch grow on very wet and swampy soils. Birch Crown and Redokolkoy can form on the plain and mountainous areas. In the foreststeppe zone of the European and Asian part of Eurasia, the indigenous birch trees grow in separate islands, which are called “Kolki”.
The woody canopy of small-leaved forests does not create proper dimming, which is why the floristic variety of grass cover is formed. Mosses are usually absent. In addition to forest plants, in smallleaved forests there are many meadow and accessory species, and in contact with foreststeppe and steppe plant communities, steppe and foreststeppe varieties of vegetation are formed. Most smallleaved rocks have a high ability to spread to free areas, preparing them for subsequent settlement of other breeds. Thus, the birch contributes to the development of darkskinned breeds that settled under the canopy, and then develop and replace birches. On the roots of Olhas live nitrogenfixing bacteria, which contribute to the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil. The leaves of these plants have high zoning and quickly decompose, thereby increasing soil fertility.
Small forests of Eurasia
You can meet the zone of small-leaved forests from the East European plain to the Far East. Forests form a thin strip. Sometimes smallleaved forests are replaced by broadleaved. An amazing feature of smallleaved forests is their ability to accumulate moisture. Thickets of alder and birches often block the path of fire, not allowing to spread to noble breeds.
The forest was widespread in the foreststeppes of Western Siberia and Central Siberia. A strip of forest islands from the lands to the Yenisei territories formed there. The zone of bush forests is found on the plains of Eurasia in the places of fires and the robbery. On the territory of Western Siberia, smallfaced forests replaced broadleaved.
The animal world of smallleaved forests is formed under the influence of indigenous trees. It has a large number of birds. The main mammals are hares, lynx, proteins and moose. Raccoon dogs are often found. Secondary forests contribute to the restoration of green zones, however, a complete resumption requires about 180 years. Smallleaved forests act as a fire buffer.