Soil land degradation causes, problems and prevention

One of the modern environmental problems of the planet is land degradation. Under this concept are collected all the processes that change the state of the soil, worsen its functions, which leads to the loss of fertility. There are several types of degradation at the moment:

  • desertification;
  • salinity;
  • erosion;
  • pollution;
  • waterlogging;
  • depletion of the land as a result of its long-term use.
  • Salinization

    swamping

    Erosion

    The highest degree of land degradation is the complete destruction of the soil layer.

    Probably, the problem of soil degradation became topical in the 20th century, when agriculture and animal husbandry reached a high level of development. More and more territories began to be allocated for growing crops and grazing animals. This is facilitated by deforestation, changing the water basins of rivers, exploitation of coastal zones, etc. If all this continues in this spirit, then soon there will be no place on earth suitable for life. The soil will not be able to give us crops, many plant species will disappear, which will lead to food shortages and the extinction of a significant part of the world’s population, and many species of animals and birds will also die.

    Causes of land degradation

    There are many reasons for the deterioration of land quality:

  • extreme weather events (droughts, floods);
  • deforestation;
  • excessive agricultural activity;
  • soil pollution by industrial and household waste;
  • the use of agrochemistry;
  • improper reclamation technology;
  • creation of burial sites for chemical, biological and nuclear weapons;
  • Forest fires.
  • Deforestation

    Forest fires

    Almost all causes of soil degradation are caused by anthropogenic activities, which lead to the depletion and destruction of the land.

    Significance of soil degradation for human health

    The main consequence of soil degradation is that agricultural land becomes unsuitable for growing crops and grazing domestic animals. As a result, the amount of food is reduced, which will undoubtedly lead to famine, first in certain regions, and then all over the planet. Also, elements that pollute the soil enter the water and atmosphere, and this leads to an increase in the number of diseases, including infectious ones, reaching the scale of epidemics. All this, hunger and disease, leads to premature death and a sharp decline in the population.

    Addressing land degradation

    In order to solve the problem of land degradation, it is necessary to unite the efforts of the largest possible number of people. First of all, the prevention of soil degradation is regulated by international law. Each state has rules and regulations that govern the exploitation of land resources.

    To conserve the soil, measures are being taken to install means of protection against erosion, desertification and other problems. For example, control of deforestation and use of soils for cultivation of crops is required. In addition, crop rotation technologies are used in agriculture with the placement of fallow strips. It also creates patches with perennial grasses that regenerate the land. Useful is snow retention, afforestation of sands, creation of buffer zones forest belts.

    Of course, soil conservation depends on people who work on the land, growing crops and grazing animals. The state of the soil depends on what technologies they use. Also, the land is heavily polluted by industrial waste, so industry workers must reduce the amount of harmful substances that are released into the environment. Each person can take care of land resources and use them correctly, and then the problem of soil degradation will be minimized.

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