Soil of moist equatorial forests relief and soil types

In the equatorial forests, red-yellow and red ferralitic soils are formed, saturated with aluminum and iron, which gives the earth a reddish color. This type of soil is formed in humid and warm weather and climate conditions. Basically, here the average annual temperature is +25 degrees Celsius. Precipitation falls more than 2500 millimeters per year.

Red-yellow soils

Red-yellow ferralite soils are suitable for tree growth in equatorial forests. Trees are highly productive here. The earth in the process of life is saturated with mineral compounds. Ferralite soil contains about 5% humus. The morphology of red-yellow soils is as follows:

  • forest floor;
  • humus layer lies on 12-17 centimeters, has brown-gray, yellowish and reddish-brown shades, contains silt;
  • soil-forming rock that imparts a dark red color to the ground.
  • red soils

    Red ferralite soil is formed with an average rainfall of up to 1800 millimeters per year and if there is a dry season of at least three months. On such soils, trees do not grow so densely, and in the lower tiers, the number of shrubs and perennial grasses increases. When the dry season comes, the earth dries up and is exposed to ultraviolet rays. This gives the soil a bright red hue. The top layer is dark brown. This type of soil contains about 4-10% humus. This soil is characterized by the process of lateritization. As for the features, the red lands are formed on clay rocks, and this provides low fertility.

    Soil subtypes

    Marguelite soil is found in equatorial forests. They are composed of clays and contain small amounts of acids. The fertility of this soil is very low. Ferrallite gley soils are also found in equatorial forests. These are very wet and saline lands, and they need to be drained. Not all types of flora can grow on them.


    In the equatorial forests, ferralite soils are predominantly formed red and red-yellow. They are enriched with iron, hydrogen and aluminum. Such land is suitable for thousands of species of flora, especially those that need constant warmth and moisture. Due to the fact that it rains regularly in the equatorial forests, some useful substances are washed out of the soil, which slowly changes its structure.

    Soil of moist equatorial forests relief and soil types
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