Earth is one of the main resources around the world. However, it is subject to various phenomena that have a detrimental effect on it. One of these is soil salting. This is one of the most dangerous processes that changes not only the external signs of the soil, but also its properties, as well as the composition. There are several reasons for such a phenomenon that it is important to know in order to prevent the salinity of the earth.
The problem of soil salinization
Soil salting is a complex process in which sulfates, chlorides and carbonates accumulate in the ground, the number of which exceeds the norm. As a result of this, the soil loses its properties. All plants that were planted in this soil die off. In addition, an excess amount of salt in the earth leads to a number of negative consequences. Further use of such soil is not possible. It deprives even unpretentious cultures of viability. In addition, plants growing in the surrounding areas are also at risk. Salt soils harm not only plants, but also insects.
One of the main problems with saline soils is that the amount of salt in them continues to increase. As a result, the earth turns into a “salt lake”. This problem is especially typical for lowland areas, on irrigated agricultural lands.
For reference: The Russian Academy of Sciences has made calculations, according to which the total area of saline land today exceeds 40 million hectares.
The problem of excess salt content in the ground is largescale. It is present in every country. Most often observed in regions where agriculture is developed.
Causes of soil salinization
There are 2 types of factors that contribute to an increase in the amount of salts in the earth:
- Natural in this case, various natural phenomena are implied. During primary salinization, salts rise from groundwater to the surface of the earth. This phenomenon is typical for all types of soil.
- Anthropogenic activity man, by his actions, harms the earth. For example, irrigation systems are often used in agriculture. They have a positive effect on the amount of the future crop, but at the same time have a negative impact on the soil, often becoming the most common cause of waterlogging. Increased humidity provokes a rapid increase in groundwater levels. As a result of this, salt rises up, and accumulates on the surface of the earth.
Starting the soil salinization process is quite easy, but it is quite difficult to normalize the level of salts and return it to a healthy look. This will take quite a lot of time and effort.
Secondary soil salinization
The secondary salinization of the soil means improper use of water. This is what in 60% of cases is the reason for an increase in the amount of salts in the soil. Excessive moisture of the Earth, as well as the close occurrence of saline groundwater creates ideal conditions for secondary salinization.
Watering water in excessive volume penetrates into the deep layers of the soil, reaching the level of salt soil water, and closing with it. As a result, water rises to the surface of the earth. Over time, the liquid evaporates, and the salt that was contained in it remains on the surface of the soil.
Another cause of secondary salinization is the inappropriate use of agricultural technology. For example, an incorrectly planned field with a close occurrence of salted groundwater provokes the formation of salt marshmallows. On the hills and hillocks of the field, there is an increase in the evaporation of the liquid. As this happens, the salts precipitate and are deposited in the soil.
Agronomists know firsthand that soil salinization can be caused by untimely tillage. Even a simple delay in loosening the earth for only a few days often causes salinization of the earth. This is due to the loss of soil moisture up to 50%, as a result of which the place of fresh water in the soil comes from below salty.
Soil salinity types
Salinity is a characteristic that is determined only in laboratory conditions by testing. Depending on this indicator, the land is divided into 4 types:
The amount of salts in each type exceeds the allowable limit. Depending on the chemical composition, the soil is classified into 3 types: chloride, sulfate, carbonate. Each of them is dangerous for both flora and fauna.
The fight against soil salinity and solutions
To normalize the level of salt in the earth, both agricultural and construction measures are used. Their main task is to restore the level of groundwater in the initial state and reduce the evaporation of soil moisture.
The following measures include the agricultural technology:
Agricultural technology in territories prone to soloncality provides for measures aimed at increasing soil drainage. This is required for the outflow of excess fluid, leaching salt from the rootoff level into the deep layers.
Construction measures include the creation of tray nets and facing channels that can reduce the filtration loss of liquid. Hydrotechnical stage on irrigation systems is also installed and watering technique is used without saturation of groundwater. Near large areas, the construction of special dams, channels, drainage systems is recommended. Such buildings remove excess water, preventing her from stagnating in the ground. The creation of irrigation of irrigated territories from the influence of floods and the above water bodies is also relevant.
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