Soils of broad-leaved forests of Eurasia the type and features of the soil

The deciduous forest zone covers a wide swath of Eurasia and North America. Basically, these forests are in a temperate climate with flushing aquatic conditions on the plains. In these forests there are oaks and beeches, hornbeams and ash trees, lindens and maples, various herbaceous plants and shrubs. All this flora grows on ordinary gray soils and podzolic, brown and dark gray forest soils. Sometimes forests are on highly fertile chernozems.


Brown forest soils are formed when humus accumulates and plants rot. Fallen leaves are the main element. The soil is enriched with various humic acids. The illuvial level of the soil is saturated with secondary minerals, which are formed as a result of chemical and biochemical processes. The land of this type has a high saturation with organic matter. The composition of burozem is as follows:

  • the first level is bedding;
  • the second humus, lies at 20-40 centimeters, has a gray-brown color;
  • the third level is illuvial, of a bright brown hue, lies about 120 centimeters;
  • the fourth is the level of soil-forming rocks.
  • The brown soils of the forest have a fairly high fertility rate. They can grow a variety of tree species, types of shrubs and herbs.

    gray soils

    The forest is characterized by gray soils. They come in several subspecies:

  • light gray contain 1.5-5% of humus in general, saturated with fulvic acids;
  • forest gray sufficiently enriched with humus up to 8% and the soil contains humic acids;
  • dark gray soils with a high level of humus 3.5-9%, containing fulvic acids and calcium neoplasms.
  • For gray soils, the forming rocks are loams, moraine deposits, loess, clay. According to experts, gray soils were formed as a result of the degradation of chernozems. Soils are formed under the influence of soddy processes and a slight development of podzolic. The composition of the gray soil is presented as follows:

    Soils of broad-leaved forests of Eurasia the type and features of the soil
  • litter layer up to 5 centimeters;
  • humus layer 15-30 centimeters, has a gray color;
  • humus-eluvial light gray shade;
  • eluvial-illuvial gray-brown color;
  • illuvial horizon brown-brown;
  • transition layer;
  • parent rock.
  • Broad-leaved forests contain quite fertile soils burozems and sulfurs, as well as other types of soils. They are equally enriched in humus and acids; they form on different rocks.

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